i have seen below sentence in 504 absolutely essential words book:

'precaution:measures taken beforehand'

but i know 'measures which were taken beforehand ' is true...

i have seen first structure many different times til now it is a brief form of passive sentence???

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Hi Mojtaba and welcome to forum,

Yes. It IS the abbreviated form for passive.


Both ways of saying it are correct. However, the sentence becomes neater and less wordy when you leave off

that "which". You could've said measures which were taken beforehand instead. It has the same meaning.

You should also know dictionaries prefer using shorter sentences than long ones.

Good luck!
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salam agha Iman

kindly let me know where an how i can find my posts???

Dear Mojtaba,

You can find your posts at your account where you can get there by clicking on your name under the search section. At the bottom of the page you can find your posts.

OR follow this route: Home >> the column on right>> your forums>> your posts

Hope that helps,

tnx iman jan

at front of vote this up/down is written for ex. +2 ???? and how many times i can vote for a post???

Thanks for your kind of attention
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Hi Mojtaba and welcome to English forums.

You are strictly refrained from using any language other than English here. So please stop using words in your own language. Since you are new to this forum, no blame attached.

As for your question, which were taken beforehand is a verbial clause. In verbial clauses similar to adjectival and adverbial clauses, the verb to be (were) and relative pronoun(which) can be omitted.

Note that this rule cannot be applied to noun clauses.

I hope you find the above information helpful.


Thanks for your support!!!

The rain ceased and sky cleared......both sentences are passive that the verb tobe(were) is omitted????


Your sentence is NOT passive,it is past simple active.

Note, cease and clear can be used as intransitive verbs.

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