I saw this in a book on the flooding of Nouvelle Orleans in 2005

The streets were patina-ed with leaves and debris.

What does this mean patina-ed.

Does all verbs ending with a need they slash ed at the end for past tense?.

SiernanThe streets were patina-ed with leaves and debris.
In this case it's a made-up usage.

"Patina" is a noun, referring to the build-up caused by natural ageing on a surface, such as that of an antique.
If you wanted the article to look "new," you'd probably scrape it off, but if you wanted it to look "antique," you'd leave it alone.

Here, it's a bit figurative. The "coating" on the streets was everywhere, so it almost looked natural - as if it belonged.

"Patina" is not a verb, but is used as one here in the passive, as though it had been done by some "agent."

Perhaps some antique-restoring experts use it as a verb, meaning to artificially add the coating in order to simulate aging.

When the word doesn't exist as a verb, I suppose you can add "-ed" to create a faux past participle.

I guess you could call it a nonce word. When it becomes popular, the hyphen will be dropped.


There are transitive verbs ending in "a" whose past participles and past tenses end in "aed."


Probably at one time these only existed as nouns. (Well, "deflea" is definitely a verb!) Emotion: big smile

And "umbrellaed" is probably not transitive, although you might say,
"I umbrellaed my children, and sent them off to school." (Like, "I booted them.")
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
thanks for your very great explanation
if the verb does exist is it still -ed if ending with a
Siernanif the verb does exist is it still -ed if ending with a

See the Edit. in my post. - A.
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thanks again
I'm no linguist, but I used to be a jeweller, and surely the verb form of patina is 'to patinate' (http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/Patinate )?
So the streets should have been patinated with leaves.