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It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.


Phrase: either no subject or no predicate: never both. Like : Some people

(It) (times) Subject- refering to the period of time, and (was) / best of times (predicate).


I understand this one: Out with the old, in with the new. (No subject)



What do we call these types of clauses: From Canadian Geese flying, to American Eagles soaring.


I can send it, if you want it. (Is the comma here optional?)


They are not trying to avoid a fine: they are refusing to pay out of principle. (Colon: correct here?)



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panda blue 483What do we call these types of clauses: From Canadian Geese flying, to American Eagles soaring.

These are not clauses. A group of words is not a clause unless it expresses a complete proposition, which usually means that it has at least a subject and a main verb. "from Canadian Geese flying" and "to American Eagles soaring" are prepositional phrases.

"Out with the old, in with the new" is somewhat of an idiomatic exception to the normal rules. Although they seem to have the form of prepositional phrases, in fact we use "out with ~" and "in with ~" to express ideas similar to the imperatives "throw out ~" and "bring in ~".

panda blue 483I can send it, if you want it. (Is the comma here optional?)

Yes.