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The whole sentence goes like this:
"At its center, the sun has a density of over a hundred times that of water, and a temperature of 10-20 million degrees Celsius."

But I don't get this part: ''the sun has a density of over a hundred times THAT of water'
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"that" is used as a substitute for "the density". That way you don't have to say "density" twice:

the sun has a density of over a hundred times the density of water

Yeah, I guessed "that" was used as a substitute for "the density".
But don't you think there's something lacking, since we got two ..er... stuff (one is the sun and the other is water) to compare? For instance, we gotta put a comparative and 'than' between 'times' and 'the density? I am puzzled.
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We gotta put a comparative and 'than' between 'times' and 'the density?

At its center, the sun has a density {of over a hundred times that of water}
Here 'over' means the same as 'more than'

This sentence can be paraphrased as;
At its center, the sun has a density {that is more than a hundred times that of water}
Mathematically expressed;
At its center, the sun has a density{ that is (>100)X(the density of water)}

paco
When you use an expression "n times the ... of ..." it implies "n times more than the ... of ...". It is completely acceptable to leave out "more than". If you are specifying the exact factor with a precise number (100 times, 5 times, etc.), then there is no need to add the less precise expression "more than".

So there are a variety of ways to show the same relationship.

The height of this fence is greater than the height of the rose bush.
The height of this fence is greater than that of the rose bush.

The height of this fence is four times (more than / greater than) the height of the rose bush.
The height of this fence is four times (more than / greater than) that of the rose bush.

The choices in parentheses can be omitted, and they usually are.

CJ Sensei

I thought this author uses "times" in the sense like that in "Tow times three is six". And the number is 'more than a hundred', instead of 'two'. Was I wrong?

paco
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Paco,

You're not wrong.

2 x 3 = 6
'two' times 'three' is 'six'
'six' is 'two' times 'three'

'the density of X' is 'one hundred' times 'the density of Y'
'the density of X' is 'more than one hundred' times 'the density of Y'

Your objection is that we don't normally say things like "Two times more than three is six", I presume? Well, yes, that's rather unidiomatic, but it means that, doesn't it? Well, I thought that's what it meant, anyway! If there are three pieces of cake on the table, and six people come for cake, we need two times more (pieces of cake) than the number we already have (three) in order to feed everybody, or "We need two times more than three".

If seven people came for cake, we would need "more than two times more than three"!

Too twisted? Next time I get this question, I'll try to explain it more simply, OK?

CJ
CJ
'the density of X' is 'more than one hundred' times 'the density of Y'
That's exactly what I thought!
"more than two times more than three"!
This expression is not easy as pie to get quickly. ^_^

Anyway thank you a lot!

paco

When you use an expression "n times the ... of ..." it implies "n times more than the ... of ...". It is completely acceptable to leave out "more than".

Got it!!!!!!!!!! Thank you Moderator, really appreciate.
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