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This dog is a friend of mine's.

Apparently the apostrophe (plus the "s") is modifying the whole phrase "a friend of mine" even though it looks as if it's modifying only "mine". (mine is already a possessive so it wouldn't make sense to add an apostrophe to it)

My question is "How do we call this use of the possessive?".

BTW, it seems that we cannot say "This dog is my friend's." so we're forced to use the above construction or something like "This dog belongs to a friend of mine". (objective case)
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IvanhrBTW, it seems that we cannot say "This dog is my friend's."
Hi, Ivanhr. Season's Greetings!

Personally, I wouldn't hesitate to use this sentence. (Or, "This is my friend's dog.")
I don't find it any more troublesome than your original. They're probably less awkward in response to a question:
Is this your dog? (reply) No, it's a friend of mine's. / It's my friend's. (Sorry, I don't know what we call it!) Emotion: thinking
Holiday greetings to you A (and your dog if you have one)

Thanks for the quick reply. With regard to my second sentence, it just sounded awkward even though the grammar seemed ok.
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Avangi
IvanhrBTW, it seems that we cannot say "This dog is my friend's."
Hi, Ivanhr. Season's Greetings! Personally, I wouldn't hesitate to use this sentence. (Or, "This is my friend's dog.") I don't find it any more troublesome than your original. They're probably less awkward in response to a question:Is this your dog? (reply) No, it's a friend of mine's. / It's my friend's. (Sorry, I don't know what we call it!)
Just to confirm: ... a friend of mine OR ... a friend of mine's?
Yoong Liat No, it's a friend of mine's. / It's my friend's.

Just to confirm: ... a friend of mine OR ... a friend of mine's?
Hi, Yoong. How goes it?

My intention was to show that the dog belonged to a friend of mine. The appostrophes are intentional.

I guess that without the appostrophe I'd be saying that the dog is my friend. (Not a bad idea!)

Best wishes, and season's greetings, - A.
What? No! Not "a friend of mine's!

Mine IS possessive -- it doesn't need the 's to make it "more" possessive.
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Sorry GG but you seem to have misunderstood the question. The apostrophe modifies the whole phrasing "(a friend of mine)'s. I simply wanted to know what to call it, that's all.
Call it a casual speaking thing. Don't try to put that in writing.

John is a friend of mine.
This is John's dog.

In speech, yes, you'll hear "this is a friend of mine's dog.
In writing: This is the dog of a friend of mine/This dog belongs to a friend of mine/This is my friend's dog
Grammar Geek"this is a friend of mine's dog.
?Emotion: thinking This dog is a friend of mine's.
I've never heard the former.
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