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I have some questions on prepositions. I'd appreciate much if you can answer them for me. Thanks in advance!

'on', 'in' and other prepositions:
Please refer to the values in the spreadsheet.
Please refer to the values on the spreadsheet.

What's mentioned in the document cannot be true.
What's mentioned on the document cannot be true.

Which one of the above is correct?

This value is missing from the spreadsheet.
This value is missing on the spreadsheet.
This value is missing in the spreadsheet.

Which of these is correct?

Put the book on the table.
Put the book over the table. (?)
Put the book on top of the table. (Doesn't sound right, but still checking)

I'll complete this in the next few weeks.
I'll complete this over the next few weeks.

I cleaned up my apartment in the weekend.
I cleaned up my apartment over the weekend.
I cleaned up my apartment at the weekend. (?)

Don't throw it on me.
Don't throw it at me.

I watched it on the TV.
I watched it in the TV.
(Is 'the' really needed in the above sentences or can it be omitted?)

The table is in the room.
The table is on the room. (?)

Please help me on these. Thanks again!
Comments  
Hello, guest! I'll try to help you with these pesky prepositions. I'll try to tell you which of your examples are correct, and, for the choices that are not correct, if the preposition might be correct in a different situation.

Please refer to the values in the spreadsheet. ("in" the contents)
Look, someone spilled coffee on the spreadsheet. ("on" the surface)

What's mentioned in the document cannot be true.
The signature on the document is a forgery.

The value is missing from the spreadsheet.

Put the book on the table.
Hang the chandelier over the table.
(I'll talk about "on top of" later)

I'll complete this in the next few weeks/over the next few weeks -- both okay, but "in" can be anytime within the next few weeks - maybe you won't do it until the very last day. "Over" implies that you will be working gradually and frequently throughout the next few weeks.

I'll clean my apartment over the weekend.
I'll clean my apartment this weekend/next weekend.
(There was a long thread recently about "this" and "next" regarding the calendar -- different people use the terms differently, there is often some ambiguity.)

Don't throw it at me - most common.
Dont throw it on me -- only if "it" is something that might cover the person completely, literally or metaphorically -- Don't throw that blanket on me. Don't try to throw the blame on me. (If someone is on fire, you would throw a blanket ON them, not AT them, to smother the flames.)

I watched it on TV.
I put the vase of flowers on the TV.

The table is in the room.
I really can't think of any situation where we would say "on the room"!

I left "on" and "on top of" for the end because it takes some more effort to explain. In most cases, we just say "on." [Put the book on the table. Put the suitcase on the bed. Put this hat on your head.] Usually, "on" means "on top of." In these cases we usually just say "on," but it would not be incorrect to say "on top of." (It would sound more emphatic, and, incases where no emphasis was necessary, it might sound a little strange.)

However, sometimes "on" does not necessarily mean "on the uppermost surface of," but "on any surface of." [The leopard has spots on its belly. There is moss on (all parts of) the rock. There are photographs on the refrigerator (on the front, held in place by magnets) In cases where "on" might not mean "on the topmost part," we say "on top of" to make that clear. Examples:
Put your shopping list on the refrigerator so you don't forget it.
Put this box on top of the refrigerator.
Pour chocolate sauce on the ice cream. (It doesn't just sit on the very top, it goes all over)
Put the cherry on top of the ice cream.
Put this book on the bookcase (on any shelf)
Put this book on top of the bookcase (way up on top, where the children won't see it!)

Other English speakers might have different explanations -- some of these are pretty subtle choices.

I hope I've helped.

Please register so we know which "guest" you are. (Personally, when I write back to someone I'm always curious to know where they are from and what their native language is, although of course you do not have to say if you prefer not to.) Anyway, welcome to English Forums.
Whaaah. I spent a long time on this answer, and apparently the questioner has not even looked at it. Emotion: crying Am I allowed to boost it back up to the top of the list?
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Hello Khoff,

Please accept my apologies first. I couldn't check back yesterday. I went through your post and I think you've answered all my questions. That's so nice of you, thank you so much again!!
Note: With documents, spreadsheets, books, and other carriers of information, the preposition is "on" when we refer to the physicality of the entity, "in" when we refer to the information it contains.

"spill something on the book, magazine, etc."
"read something in a book, magazine, etc."

Exception: when we place something physical into the physical confines of such an entity, perhaps to conceal it:

He hid the check in the magazine.

In any case, it's important to distinguish between two closely related meanings of such words when choosing a preposition. In some sense, the "book" you drop on the floor is not the same "book" that you read!

CJ
Thanks, guest. I'm sorry I got so impatient waiting for a response - it was childish of me to post a complaint, and I apologize to all. Thanks for responding so nicely - and next time, I'll try to be more patient.

Jim -
In some sense, the "book" you drop on the floor is not the same "book" that you read!
-- intersting thought!

You can also "read something into" a book, when you attribute a meaning to it that the author did not intend, and you can "get something out of a book" when you achieve understanding or insight as a result of having read the book. (Or you can "get something out of a book" when you remove the check that you had hidden between the pages.)
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The thing about prepositions is that many of them, though different, can be (and frequently are) used to say the same thing. The question is not which one is correct, but rather which one will best communicate what I am trying to communicate. Each word in the English language has a different tone and obviously, in a technical sense, some prepositions are going to be closer to the reality you are describing than others.

Use that as a guide.