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I'd like to see if 'talking' is present participle or gerund as in 'We soon got talking'.

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The sentence is not really grammatical. It needs to be something like this:

We soon got to talking about the weather.

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anonymous

I'd like to see if 'talking' is present participle or gerund as in 'We soon got talking'.

"Talking" a present participle, but it really doesn't matter. The important thing is that it is a verb.

"Talking" is actually a clause (with the verb "talking" as head) functioning as complement of "got".

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If so, 'we soon became talking' is also not grammatical?

As far as I know,

"get to do" =American English

"get ~ing" = British English

e.g., Somehow, we got talking today about which member of the Liverpool squad would win in a bar fight.

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anonymous

If so, 'we soon became talking' is also not grammatical?

As far as I know, "get to do" =American English / "get ~ing" = British English

e.g., Somehow, we got talking today about which member of the Liverpool squad would win in a bar fight.

Yes: We soon became talking is ungrammatical. "Become" requires a noun phrase as complement (He became a teacher), or an adjective phrase (He became remorseful), but not a clause (*He became feeling remorse / *He became to feel remorseful).

We got to talk about politics is fine, although We got to talking about politics is perhaps not as common in BrE as it is in AmE (we Brits would more naturally say We got talking about ... ).

Your last example is thus fine.