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We have learned that the form of base ing can be used for present participles and gerunds but according to some definitions, base ing itself is called present participles and then we should change a lot of things here.
Do you agree that a gerund is a part of present participles and they function as an adjective and a noun (gerund), etc?

In grammar, the present participle of a verb is the form which ends in `-ing'. Present participles are used to form continuous tenses, as in `She was wearing a neat blue suit'. They are often nouns, as in `I hate cooking' and`Cooking can be fun'. Many of them can be used like an adjective in front of a noun, as in `their smiling faces'.
- Collins-

Cf. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/present_participle
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Hans51Thank you and then can we say there are other thoughts about that?
The first thing to remember is that every verb paradigm has two distinct verb-forms reserved for present participle and gerund, and they share the same shape - both ending in ing. Here, for example, is the paradigm for the verb "walk":

Present tense 3rd sing: walks
....."........."......" other : walk
Past tense................ : walked
Infinitive.................... : walk
Present participle...... : walking
Gerund..................... : walking
Past participle........... : walked

Being part of a verb paradigm, the present participle and gerund forms "walking" clearly must be verbs, not adjective / noun. Sometimes however, the present participle can be used as an adjective, in which case it's called a participial adjective. And sometimes the gerund can be used as a noun, in which case it's called a gerundial noun. In most uses, though, both the ing-forms are verbs. Here are some examples:

[1] People noisily entertaining friends all night are a pain. (verb - present participle)
[2] The children's magic show was really entertaining. (participial adjective).

[3] The robbers were jailed for killing the guard. (verb - gerund)
[4] I witnessed the killing of the guard. (gerundial noun)

In those examples, [1] illustrates the use of the present participle "entertaining" in its role as a verb. It must be a verb because it has a direct object, "friends". By contrast, "entertaining" in [2] is an adjective, it is being used predicatively to describe the magic show. In [3] the gerund "killing" is being used as a verb, again with a direct object, "guard"; but in [4] "killing" is being used as a noun, as can be seen by the use of the article "the", and the of-phrase as complement.

Is that a reasonable (brief) explanation of the verbal and adjectival uses of present participles, and the verbal and nominal uses of gerunds?

BillJ

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Comments  
When the -ing form is used adjectivally, it's generally known as a participle; when it's used as a noun, it's known as a gerund. These words are only labels. I don't think it's helpful to say that gerunds are participles, or vice versa, but I am happy to consider both gerunds and participles as -ing forms.
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Thank you sir and I am with you but I cannot ignore what they say, so by the way there are different opinions on the labeling thing, right? I cannot wait to hear again.Emotion: big smile
Gerund : a noun in the form of the present participle of a verb (that is, ending in -ing) for example travelling in the sentence I preferred travelling alone.
- Oxford -

a noun in the form of the present participle of a verb, for example 'shopping' in the sentence 'I like shopping'

- Longman -

a noun formed from a verb, denoting an action or state. In English, the gerund, like the present participle, is formed in -ing.
- Collins -

I think that there are different definitions of the word, gerund and we also can say that gerund is a part of the present participle. What do you think? It is a really ground-shaking issue for me. Please help me out again.
Hans51 we also can say that gerund is a part of the present participle. What do you think?
The gerund is not 'part' of the present participle.The gerund and the present participle have the identical form ending in -ing. Some learners may think of both as simply the '-ing form'. That's fine.
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Thank you and then you do not agree with the definitions by the dictionaries? I really appreciate your help and opinions as usual.
Hans51then you do not agree with the definitions by the dictionaries?
I did not say or suggest that.
Hans51Thank you and then you do not agree with the definitions by the dictionaries?
Wiktionary is not a dictionary. It is an open online project. You can safely ignore anything you see there. There are real dictionaries at onelook.com .
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Thank you and then can we say there are other thoughts about that?
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