+0
Hi there,
I've been learning the cambridge grammer book and, came up with these grammer confussion.
Could some one out there please explain me more?

This one is clear.

a) Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on is way there)

This one is said, He is back home. So, why don't we use "Had" instead of "Has", because he went there and it is in the past.

b) Jim is back home now. He has been to Italy. (= he has now come back)

I've confused with b and this c. Here, it said, he is still in there. But the same grammer patterm was used.

c) Jim went to Australia and he's still there.
You ask: "How long has you been in Italy?"

OK then, Can I ask something like this if Jim is back now from Australia?
"How long had you been in Australia?"
+0
untoldpainThis one is clear.

a) Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on is way there)
OK. Apparently you understand this one.
untoldpain... why don't we use "Had" instead of "Has", because he went there and it is in the past.

b) Jim is back home now. He has been to Italy. (= he has now come back)
The present perfect tense here (has been) indicates that this is one of the things in the list of things you experienced in the past. You don't need to go even farther in the past by writing had. (had been needs a reference point in the past. See my reply to your last question, below.)

Three days ago, I saw the movie "Good Heart".
Two days ago, I ate lunch at the new restaurant in town called "DJ's".

Yesterday, I visited the Museum of Modern Art.

Today, my friend asks, "What have you done lately?"
I mentally review the list above, and I say:
I have seen "Good Heart". I have eaten lunch at DJ's. I have visited the Museum of Modern Art.
(These are all things in the list of things I did in the past. But I don't use had.)

_______________
untoldpainc) Jim went to Australia and he's still there.
You ask: "How long has you been in Italy?"
There is something wrong here. has you been is not right. Maybe you should take another look at what it said in the book.
__________________
untoldpainCan I ask something like this if Jim is back now from Australia?
"How long had you been in Australia?"
As you have it, there is no reference point in the past, so what you most likely want here is this: How long were you in Australia?

With a reference point in the past, you can have something like this: How long had you been in Australia when you left for Italy?

CJ
Comments  
b) Jim is back home now. He has been to Italy. (= he has now come back) ...he went there and it is in the past.-- That's right, so simple past or present perfect are the choices. Past perfect is used to sequence two past events, not a past event and 'now'.

c)-- No, for the same reason as B
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
Thanks.
So, if c was wrong, what should I use in that situation?

c) Jim went to Australia and he's still there.
You ask: "How long has you been in Italy?"
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.