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Good day!

Is it correct if I use such verbs in Present Perfect?

to like, to hate, to feel, to know, to understand, to remember, to forget, to believe, to recognize

For example, are these sentences correct?

1. I have liked/hated him (I mean "I liked/hated him just now").
2. I have felt cold ("I felt cold just now").
3. I have known it ("I knew it just now").
4. I have understood it ("I understood it just now").
5. I have remembered it ("I remembered it just now").
6. I have forgotten it ("I forgot it just now").
7. I have believed him ("I believed him just now").
8. I have recognized him ("I recognized him just now").
Comments  
These feelings, emotions and mental convolutions don't normally happen instantaneously, so I find some of your sentences odd in the meanings you wish to express with them. Most are perfectly normal, however, when extended over time:

1. I have liked/hated him ever since I met him.
2. I have felt cold every time I have stepped into a snowdrift.
3. Every time he has raided the refrigerator, I have known it.
4. I have understood it ("I understood it just now"). Yes?: Well, I thought I would never understand, but I think I've finally understood it (sometime between the indefinite past and now)
5. I have remembered it ("I remembered it just now"). Yes?: Oh! I have just remembered-- I have to stop at the post office.
6. I used to know his name, but I have forgotten it (sometime between the indefinite past and now)
7. When he has lied, I have believed him.
8. I have recognized him ("I recognized him just now"). Yes?: Oh! I have just recognized him-- he's John Voight!

No. The sentences are not correct as paraphrased.

We need to separate "remember", "forget", and "recognize" from the rest, because these are basically instantaneous events. If you just at this very second have done one of these things, you can say, "Now I have [remembered, forgotten, recognized] ...". If "understand" is used to mean the instantaneous coming to understand (realizing), then it, too, can be used this way.

With the others you have little hope of constructing a good sentence that has the "just now" meaning.

That doesn't mean you can't use the present perfect for other meanings with those verbs. "I have known him for years" is perfectly fine, for example. But it doesn't have the "just now" meaning.

CJ
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Hello,

I looked at The One-Minute Grammarian by Morton S. Freeman (Penguin Books, USA). I like this book because it has some quick descriptions. From what I understand, the present perfect tense (have + a verb or has a verb) is used in two general cases: 1) to express an action that was begun in the past and still is continuing; 2) to express an action that was completed in the recent indefinite (meaning not specified) past. Of the two cases, I think the first probably is easier to learn to recognize and apply (use). The second case often gets confused with the simple past tense and, in fact, the simple past tense frequently works to communicate a similar meaning. (A lot of times, it's possible to get the meaning across in more than one tense.)

If the action was short-term (quick) and has finished, I'd tend to choose the simple past tense.

1. "I have liked/hated him." I'd only say this if there had been times when I'd liked/hated him, times when I hadn't, and I didn't like/hate him at the moment. Even then, "I used to like/hate him." or "There have been times when I liked/him." would suit me better.

2. "I have felt cold." Possibly, but I'd probably say "I was cold." or "I was cold sometimes." (simple past)

3. I'd only say "I have known it" if I didn't know it any more or had forgotten it for a significant period of time. Even then, I'd probably say "I used to know it" or "I knew it once."

4. "I have understood it." Possibly. Especially if I had been unsuccessfully trying to understand for a long time and, just a very short while ago, had finally understood. Could also say "I (finally) understand it" or "I (finally) understood it."

5. "I have remembered it." Yes. Especially if I had been unsuccessfully trying to remember for a long time and, just a very short while ago, had finally remembered.

6. "I have forgotten it ." Yes. Especially if I had been unsuccessfully trying to remember for a long time, but hadn't been able to.

7. "I have believed him." I'd probably say "I believed him about that" or just "I believed him."

8. "I have recognized him." (I'd probably say "I recognized him" but, if someone asked me specifically "Have you recognized him?" I could answer either way. I might say "I have recognized him" if I'd been looking at him for quite some time, trying to figure out who he was.
Many thanks! I understand now. You helped me a lot.

By the way, in that context should I say "You helped me a lot" or "You have helped me a lot"? Is the difference appreciable? What phrase is more correct?
Both "helped" and "have helped" are perfectly fine.
I would use "You've helped me a lot", probably because that form makes it seem (to me) that the help was given more recently, which it was. There is more a sense of immediacy (to me) with "have helped", which is what you want in a conversational exchange such as posts on a forum.
There is nothing strange about the alternate form, however. It, too, is quite possible.

CJ
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Thank you for the elucidation. Emotion: smile