Hello everyone. I went through the archives and found another post on the position of adverbs in the passive voice, but it didn`t help me fully understand this: what`s the general rule (if any) for the placement of diffent kinds of adverbs in passive voice, in the present perfect tense?
For example, we may say

He has never been seen without a hat.
He has been deeply involved in this project.

My guess is that `never`, which is negating the verb, is placed the same like `not`, whereas `deeply` (manner) is placed right before the participle.
But what about the following:

He has rarely been seen without a hat.
or ?
He has been rarely seen without a hat.

He has almost been killed 3 times.
or ?
He has been almost killed 3 times.

Are there any cases where a non-negating adverb can be placed interchangeably before been or before the participle? Also, are there exceptions and/or common mistakes (especially in spoken language) that we should be aware of?

Thank you very much for your kind help in advance.

1 2
Passive has nothing to do with it. The so-called adverbs of frequency are usually placed as follows:

1. Before the main verb if it is in the present or past tense: I almost hurt my leg. He seldom smiles.

2. After the present and past tense forms of to be: He is always late.

3. After the defective/modal auxiliaries (can, could; will, would; shall, should; may, might; must; ought): He would never have done it. He may always have known it.

4. After the perfect auxiliaries (have, has; had): He has never been told the truth. They had often said something.

5. After not: They do not/don't always know the right answer. I have not/haven't always liked her.

6. In questions, after the subject: Does he always know the right answer?

Some words and expressions, which don't necessarily denote time at all, that can be placed according to the above rules include: always, often, again, usually, never, ever, seldom, sometimes, still, already, first, at first, finally, immediately, suddenly, at once, afterwards, clearly, kindly, quietly, perhaps, almost, hardly, completely etc. Many of these can occur in other positions as well. For example, sometimes often takes initial position: Sometimes I don't like his suggestions at all. Now is very flexible as far as its position is concerned:

Now he is reading a book. He is now reading a book. He is reading a book now.

Some adverbs can be placed next to the word they are associated with to make the meaning clear: He has been deeply involved in this project.

Dear CB, thank you very much for your answer, it has been very helpfull.
Thanx again! Emotion: smile
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Dear CB,

Thank you for your explanation; it was very clear and helpful.

I do have one more question regarding Point 3: if the modal verb is used with be, where does the adverb of frequency occur?

For example:

He frequently would be seen...
He would frequently be seen...
He would be seen frequently...

Would he frequently be seen...?

He wouldn't frequently be seen...


Thank you for any feedback you can give.
If you have a verb phrase with multiple verbs, the frequency adverb goes after the first verb in the series.

would be seen - three verbs > would often be seen; would never be seen; would always be seen; would frequently be seen
should have been found - four verbs > should always have been found; should usually have been found; ...

What about

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AnonymousWhat aboutWe have officially been given the go-ahead.Several options are currently being considered.
Those are fine. Those adverbs can also be placed at the end.

Dear CB
many many thanks.
you completely address one of my great challenges in learning English.
What's the position of "yet" in negative passive sentences?
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