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Hello all! I should like to ask some questions;

Saying " I played with my cousins yesterday. " is correct, but " I've played with my cousins yesterday." is not because time is defined. However one can say " I've played with my cousins" and that sentence can mean " I played with my cousins maybe yesterday, maybe two weeks ago, or maybe today, am I right?

The another question is, can I use the simple past tense in the following situation:

I've cut my finger, it's still bleeding.

I did cut my finger, it's still bleeding.

Is the second one also correct? And If I said "I've cut my finger. "without saying it's still bleeding, would people still understand it as my finger is still bleeding? If I said " I did cut my finger.", again without saying it's still bleeding, would people understand it my finger is cut some time ago, it might be bleeding now, or it might now?

And the last question is, Is there any situation where simple past tense cannot be used instead of present perfect?

Thanks all!
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Up. ( I hope doing this is not wrong)
NugsoSaying " I played with my cousins yesterday. " is correct, but " I've played with my cousins yesterday." is not because time is defined. However one can say " I've played with my cousins" and that sentence can mean " I played with my cousins maybe yesterday, maybe two weeks ago, or maybe today, am I right?
That's right. "I've played with my cousins" tells us that you have that experience. It's part of your memories.
NugsoThe another question is, can I use the simple past tense in the following situation:I've cut my finger, it's still bleeding.I did cut my finger, it's still bleeding.Is the second one also correct?
Yes, but it's the emphatic form, typically used only to deny a contrary claim, thus:

-- You didn't cut your finger.
-- Yes, I did. I did cut my finger.

'cut' is the past of 'cut'. I cut my finger. It's still bleeding. is correct.
NugsoIf I said "I've cut my finger. "without saying it's still bleeding, would people still understand it as my finger is still bleeding?
No. If you say only "I've cut my finger", you haven't said anything at all about bleeding. Maybe it was a very superficial cut and there was no blood. If you want people to know something about the blood -- or the lack of it, you'll have to say the words that tell them that. (You can't talk only about giraffes and expect people to infer facts about elephants from it. Emotion: smile )
NugsoIf I said " I did cut my finger.", again without saying it's still bleeding, would people understand that my finger was cut some time ago? It might be bleeding now, or it might not?
"I cut my finger" is past, so yes, people would understand that you cut your finger at some time in the past -- maybe two seconds ago; maybe ten years ago. Again, if you say nothing about the blood, people will just have to guess. However, if you cut your finger ten years ago, and your finger is bleeding now, the cause of the bleeding now is not likely to be the cut of ten years ago. In that case, there is some other reason that your finger is bleeding now.
NugsoIs there any situation where simple past tense cannot be used instead of present perfect?
Yes. The first example that comes to mind is when you have a since-clause saying when the situation began.

I was working on this puzzle since last Monday. (wrong)
I have been working on this puzzle since last Monday. (right)

CJ
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CalifJimNugsoThe another question is, can I use the simple past tense in the following situation:I've cut my finger, it's still bleeding.I did cut my finger, it's still bleeding.Is the second one also correct?Yes, but it's the emphatic form, typically used only to deny a contrary claim, thus: -- You didn't cut your finger.-- Yes, I did. I did cut my finger.'cut' is the past of 'cut'. I cut my finger. It's still bleeding. is correct.
If I had written " I cut my finger. " I thought, the sentence's tense could also have been present simple tense. Now I see that I should have written " I cut my finger." to avoid misunderstaning.( Because I did not want to emphasize at all. ) Thanks CalifJim!
CalifJimNo. If you say only "I've cut my finger", you haven't said anything at all about bleeding. Maybe it was a very superficial cut and there was no blood. If you want people to know something about the blood -- or the lack of it, you'll have to say the words that tell them that. (You can't talk only about giraffes and expect people to infer facts about elephants from it. )
Oh! I got it now.
CalifJimYes. The first example that comes to mind is when you have a since-clause saying when the situation began.I was working on this puzzle since last Monday. (wrong)I have been working on this puzzle since last Monday. (right)
Would you mind giving more examples other than since and for? I, unfortunately, can't think of any. Emotion: crying

Thank you, CalifJim, for your great explanation. As ThinkingSpain would say, "It's crystal clear now. " ( The sentence seems weird to me, but somehow I wrote it beacuse I could not think of any other alternative. )
NugsoIf I had written " I cut my finger. " I thought, the sentence's tense could also have been present simple tense.
Yes, but that means "I regularly cut my finger (all the time)", as in "I cut my finger every time I slice bread". From the context of your examples, it was clear that you did not mean "I cut my finger" in that way, but as a past event.
NugsoWould you mind giving more examples other than since and for?
Hmm. That requires thinking about all the sentences in the universe to see which ones belong in the category you're interested in. I'll have to think a little more about this. Emotion: thinking
NugsoIt's crystal clear now.
That's a common idiom. It is as clear as crystal (=glass). You can see through it. Nothing about it impedes your understanding.

I'm glad it's crystal clear for you now.

CJ
Thank you again CalifJim. By the by, I meant my sentence( As ThinkingSpain would say) which seems weird to me.
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NugsoI meant my sentence
Ah. OK.
NugsoAs ThinkingSpain would say, ...
"As [name-of-person] would say," is a common expression at the beginning of a sentence. It's not weird.

CJ