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The previously-happy family is a family which was happy, but now isn't,

or a family which was happy, and now is still happy.

I want to know "previously" can provide the opposite property for the modified noun?


If yes, I want to further known what is "a previously broken line" and "a previously prepared statement"?

Especially, when "a previously prepared statement" is a statement which was prepared, but now is unprepared, it sounds strange.

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Wei-Tsung LiThe previously-happy family is a family which was happy, but now isn't, or a family which was happy, and now is still happy.

It normally implies that the family is no longer happy. For properties that can change over time, "previously X" normally implies that property X no longer applies. However, once a statement has been prepared, it can hardly be "unprepared", so we don't apply that interpretation to "a previously prepared statement". We just understand it to mean that the statement was prepared beforehand. Note also that "happy" is an adjective while "prepared" is passive verbal. It's harder to think of adjective examples that would be interpreted in the "previously prepared statement" way.

By convention we normally do not use hyphens with "-ly" modifiers, even though it seems logical. Thus we would write "previously happy family".

Wei-Tsung Li"a previously broken line"

This is hard to understand without more context. More context please.

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20626652

In the absence of FKD1, PIN1::GFP narrowing to incipient veins is delayed, and localization to the apical cell face is infrequent. The lack of apical PIN1 localization correlates with the failure of newly forming veins to connect distally with previously formed veins.


I also want to know how to identify a past participle is an adjective or a passive verb.


Thank you!

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04291.x

In the absence of FKD1, PIN1::GFP narrowing to incipient veins is delayed, and localization to the apical cell face is infrequent. The lack of apical PIN1 localization correlates with the failure of newly forming veins to connect distally with previously formed veins.

The reticulate vein pattern includes both connected veins (joined to previously formed veins at both ends) and freely ending veins (joined to a previously formed vein at one end).

Is the "previously" Superfluous?

Because past participles can imply the action was done before, "formation" was done before the veins were connected to both ends, and joined at one end.


I also want to know how to identify a past participle is an adjective or a passive verb.


Thank you!

Wei-Tsung LiIn the absence of FKD1, PIN1::GFP narrowing to incipient veins is delayed, and localization to the apical cell face is infrequent. The lack of apical PIN1 localization correlates with the failure of newly forming veins to connect distally with previously formed veins. The reticulate vein pattern includes both connected veins (joined to previously formed veins at both ends) and freely ending veins (joined to a previously formed vein at one end).
Is the "previously" Superfluous?

"previously" is helpful in order to clarify the contrast with "newly forming".

Wei-Tsung LiI also want to know how to identify a past participle is an adjective or a passive verb.

The adjective describes state, while the passive verb describes action done. For example, consider "the car was damaged". If "was damaged" describes the past state of the car then it is adjectival; if it means that someone damaged the car then it is passive verbal.

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The past participle before the noun is an adjective for state or a passive verb for action?

For example, in the prepared statement, the prepared indicates the statement is ready, and the preparation was made before.

But the "previously prepared" statement indicates the preparation was made before rather than the statement was ready.

Wei-Tsung LiThe past participle before the noun is an adjective for state or a passive verb for action?

A participle before a noun will most often be understood as adjectival, and grammatically I suppose you can say that it "ought to be" adjectival. However, this can be somewhat of a grey area semantically, and there may be cases where the intention seems more passive verbal, or that seem ambiguous or indeterminate in this respect.

Wei-Tsung LiFor example, in the prepared statement, the prepared indicates the statement is ready, and the preparation was made before. But the "previously prepared" statement indicates the preparation was made before rather than the statement was ready.

In "the prepared statement", it seems reasonable to understand "prepared" as describing state, and so adjectival. However, adding the word "previously" changes our understanding to passive verbal. This is because we don't expect a statement in a prepared state to later become unprepared, which is what the adjectival interpretation would seem to imply. Compare "previously broken TV", where "broken" can be interpreted as adjectival since broken things can be mended and become "unbroken".

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