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1. Problem sentence: In Germany, foresters discovered that trees killed by acid rain had begun to die four years earlier without any signs of disease shown then.

Correct sentence: In Germany, foresters discovered that trees killed by acid rain had begun to die four years earlier, even though the trees had shown no signs of disease then.

What's wrong with the problem sentence and why is the correct version correct?

2. For the past hundred years or more, Yellowstone National Park was a kind of sociological laboratory in which North Americans have been exploring the meaning of the national-park concept.

There's something wrong with the underlined part, but what? I'm thinking it might be present tense, but why?

3. Alerted by the nervousness and evasiveness of the witness, the jurors were quick to perceive that his statements were inconsistent to those he had made earlier.

Again, something's wrong with the underlined part. What should the correct idiom be? Inconsistent with?

4. Bovary had the most spirit and determination.

How can the underlined part be fixed?

5. Between the sales manager and I existed an easy, cooperative working relationship.

Should it be 'and me"?

Many thanks!
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Dusklight1. Problem sentence: In Germany, foresters discovered that trees killed by acid rain had begun to die four years earlier without any signs of disease shown then.

Correct sentence: In Germany, foresters discovered that trees killed by acid rain had begun to die four years earlier, even though the trees had shown no signs of disease then.

What's wrong with the problem sentence and why is the correct version correct? I imagine the test writer wanted tense use to be parallel ("had begun" and "had shown"). In addition, I imagine the test writer would argue that "without any signs of disease shown then" incorrectly refers back to "foresters discovered".

2. For the past hundred years or more, Yellowstone National Park was a kind of sociological laboratory in which North Americans have been exploring the meaning of the national-park concept.

There's something wrong with the underlined part, but what? I'm thinking it might be present tense, but why? I would say that the present perfect (has been) is the best fit because the sentence refers to the fact that Yellowstone's status as a laboratory began around 100 years ago, and that status has continued up to and including now. You also have the present perfect continuous (have been exploring) later in the sentence. The exploring and the status as a laboratory have happened in the same time frame.

3. Alerted by the nervousness and evasiveness of the witness, the jurors were quick to perceive that his statements were inconsistent to those he had made earlier.

Again, something's wrong with the underlined part. What should the correct idiom be? Inconsistent with? Yes

4. Bovary had the most spirit and determination.

How can the underlined part be fixed? Sorry, I don't know what the test writer wants you to do with this.

5. Between the sales manager and I existed an easy, cooperative working relationship.

Should it be 'and me"? Yes, you need "me" because it is the object of a preposition.
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I've another grammar problem. Sorry about having so many questions. Emotion: stick out tongue

Introducing new ideas and replacing old ones is always a highly controversial matter.

Should the 'is' be 'are', since it's Introducing new ideas AND replacing old ones?
4. Bovary had the most spirit and determination.

It should be Bovary had more spirit and determination because only two people, Anna Karenina and Emma Bovary, were being compared to each other.
In number four, the sentence is comparing only two objects, so you should use the word "more" instead of "most".
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