Here's my essay. It is a little less than 4 pages double spaced. It was an open topic effect essay, so I chose the effects of sun exposure to the human body. any help/corrections would be greatly appreciated! Emotion: big smile

The Effects of Sun Exposure to the Human Body

On the average, one American dies of skin cancer every hour. People who live in locations that get more sunlight - like Hawaii, are more prone to getting skin cancer. Most people are not aware of the dangerous effects of sun exposure. The main harmful effects of sun exposure to the human body include: getting a sunburn, premature wrinkling, eye damage, damage to the immune system, and skin cancer. By innocently exposing yourself to the sun, you can be actually damaging your body inside and out (2).
After a day at the beach, you notice that your skin is a bit pink. You don’t think much of it, and the pink hue on your body fades away soon after. Although the pink hue on your body fades away, the damage to your body does not. “A sunburn results when the amount of exposure to the sun exceeds the ability of the body’s protective pigment - melanin, to protect the skin.” (2).
Although the amount of melanin in a person’s body protects the skin from turning red, it does not protect the skin from becoming damaged. The amount of melanin in a person’s body basically depends on the person’s natural skin color. A person with naturally darker skin has more melanin than someone who has naturally lighter skin. There are six skin phototypes for classifying the skin, going from light to dark. People with skin types one and two face the highest risk of developing skin cancers, while types five and six are at the lowest risk (5).
A sunburn destroys cells in the outer layer of the skin, damaging tiny blood vessels underneath. A bad sunburn can result in tenderness, pain, swelling, and blistering of the skin, as well as a fever, chills and nausea. Although there is not cure for a sunburn, wet compresses, cool tub baths and soothing lotions may help (1).
Turning into a wrinkly person by the time a person becomes an adult is not something that anyone would want to look forward to. Too much exposure to the sun causes the elastic fibers in the skin to be damaged, resulting in yellowish, wrinkled looking skin. The average person gets 80 percent of their lifetime exposure to the sun by the time they turn 18. There are many ways people treat wrinkles, the most common way is alpha hydroxy acids. Although people are able to get rid of wrinkles, it is impossible to get rid of the permanent sun damage (4).
Having skin shades of the rainbow isn’t too appealing either. The sun can cause discolorations in skin tone including red, yellow, gray and brown spots. Even though spots on the skin, known as sun spots, look ugly, they are harmless to your health and do not need to be treated unless they grow or change. There are four basic ways to treat sun spots: hydroxy acid gel, Retin-A cream, alpha hydroxy peel, and liquid nitrogen therapy. The only way to prevent age spots is to use sunscreen, avoid the sun, and wear protective clothing (3).
Sun exposure can also have harmful effects on a person’s eyes. “The American Academy of Ophthalmology has cautioned that excess exposure to UV radiation can cause a painful burn of the cornea.” (4). A painful burn of the cornea results in a cataract. A cataract causes the lens of the eye to become cloudy. Spots in the eye are an effect of cataracts. Many spots in the eye can cause blindness. Cataract surgery can remove cataracts, but if you become blind there is not cure. The only way to prevent getting cataracts is to avoid sun exposure and wear sunglasses whenever possible (3).
Damage to the immune system is also an effect of sun exposure. Scientists have discovered that sun exposure can ruin the proper functioning of the body’s immune system and the skin’s natural defenses. “No matter what your skin type or susceptibility to burns, sun exposure can damage your immune system and make your body more vulnerable to infections and cancers” (4). The only way to prevent from getting damage to the immune system is by staying out of the sun (4).
The most impacting effect of sun exposure is skin cancer. The three main types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinomas are tumors that usually appear as small, fleshy bumps or nodules. Squamous cell carcinomas appear as nodules or as red, scaly patches. Malignant melanomas can appear without warning as a dark mole or other dark spots on the skin. All three types of skin cancer can be curable if they are detected at their early stages (4).
Basal cell carcinoma, also known as BCC, is the most common form of cancer. There is over one million cases of BCC each year in the United States alone. Squamous cell carcinoma, also known as SCC is the second most common case of skin cancer. In just the United States there is over two hundred thousand new cases of SCC each year. The most serious form of skin cancer is Melanoma. Melanoma is not the most common type of skin cancer, but it does cause the most deaths (5).
While our skin has been suffering from the sun everyday, we should know the basic knowledge to protect ourselves from the damaging effects of sun exposure. Although it is nearly impossible to avoid sun exposure, it is not impossible to limit the amount of sun exposure you receive. I am sure that you do not want to see sun spots on your face when you look into the mirror; I am sure that you do not want to see the words "skin cancer" on your medical report (5).

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The effect of sun exposure on the human body.

('exposed to' but 'effect on'. You are talking about the effects of the sun.)
good job!!!