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When I read some sentences, I become confused. I see some words in the sentences, which is end on "ed". Sometimes, I start thinking, that this is past simple tense. Sometimes, when I wrote some sentences, I write some words with the "ed" ending too. But I did it clearly intuitively (on a hunch).

For example (some of native speakers, who gave me reply for my question, he wrote):

" i' could use a more practice and i' could help you improved your English." (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g. i' could help you improve your English)

Or another example: "I'm not surprised that you're confused." (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g. "I'm not surprise that you're confuse)

Another example: "But it's almost always included in English." (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g. But it's almost always include in English)

Another example: "It is always required when used this way." (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g. , It is always require when use this way)

Another example: "Present Perfect - a completed action without a SPECIFIC time in the past" (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g.Present Perfect - a complete action without.... )

Another example: "This time is not mentioned directly." (Why we can't write without "ed", e.g. This time is not mention directly)

As I have understood, this is not past simple tense. I did it in some sentences too, but I don't know, why? I did it on a hunch. I don't know how I should formulate the sentence for searching.

Could you explain me please, why we do this? What things I should know to understand, why we write sentences with "ed" ending?

Kind regards.
D
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Your first sentence is incorrect. It should be "improve" (there are other errors too). "help (someone) (to) ... " must be followed by a verb infinitive.

All your other "-ed" words are past participles. They are either adjectives or passive verbs (or an ambiguous blend of the two). In English it is common for past participles to tend to be become adjectives. For example: "He has broken the window" / "The window is broken".

Indicators that a past participle is required include a form of "be" (or other linking verb) preceding (e.g. adjectival "I'm not surprised" or passive "I was attacked") or direct modification of a noun (e.g. "a completed action"). (In fact "complete" is also an adjective, so "a complete action" is grammatical too, but possibly with a slightly different meaning.)
GPYIt should be "improve" (there are other errors too). "help (someone) (to) ... " must be followed by a verb infinitive.
Thank you, Mr. GPY! As I have understood from your message, I must memorized verbs which followed by Gerund and Infinitives?
GPYAll your other "-ed" words are past participles. They are either adjectives or passive verbs (or an ambiguous blend of the two). In English it is common for past participles to tend to be become adjectives. For example: "He has broken the window" / "The window is broken".
Thank you, GPY, but I don't understand a bit. As I know, past participles are used with perfect tensens (present perfect, past perfect, present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous). I didn't know that we can use past participle separately from perfect tenses. Or I didn't understand you right?
GPYThey are either adjectives or passive verbs (or an ambiguous blend of the two).
I know what does "adjectives" mean. (E.g. bright, tall, sleeveless, sparkling)
What does "passive verbs" mean?
GPYIn English it is common for past participles to tend to be become adjectives. For example: "He has broken the window" / "The window is broken".
Thank you for example, Mr. GPY, I know that "He has broken the windows" - presen perfect tence.
But: "The window is broken" - this is called "passive voice"? Does the word "broken" an adjective?
GPYIndicators that a past participle is required include a form of "be" (or other linking verb) preceding (e.g. adjectival "I'm not surprised" or passive "I was attacked") or direct modification of a noun (e.g. "a completed action"). (In fact "complete" is also an adjective, so "a complete action" is grammatical too, but possibly with a slightly different meaning.)
When I see linkin verbs I must write in past participle? With "ed"?

I think I am on the way of understanding Emotion: smile Sorry for many questions.
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DanilThank you, Mr. GPY! As I have understood from your message, I must memorized verbs which followed by Gerund and Infinitives?
I must memorize which verbs are followed by ...
Danil I didn't know that we can use past participle separately from perfect tenses. Or I didn't understand you right?
Past participles are also used to form the passive voice (e.g. "I was attacked"). Some past participles can also be used adjectivally (e.g. "I was very surprised").
DanilWhat does "passive verbs" mean?
I meant the passive voice of verbs.
DanilBut: "The window is broken" - this is called "passive voice"? Does the word "broken" an adjective?
In "the window is broken", the word "broken", which is a past participle, would normally be understood as adjectival. It is grammatically possible for "is broken" to be a passive verb construction, but semantically unusual in the present tense.
DanilWhen I see linkin verbs I must write in past participle? With "ed"?
Yes. These are verbs like "be", "become", "seem", "feel", etc.

I was very surprised.
I became frustrated.
He seemed exhausted.
I felt betrayed.

Of course, not all past participles end in "-ed". Irregular verbs may have different endings.
GPYI must memorize which verbs are followed by ...
Thank you, Mr. GPY! As I have understood from your message, I must memorize which verbs are followed by Gerund and Infinitives?
GPYPast participles are also used to form the passive voice (e.g. "I was attacked"). Some past participles can also be used adjectivally (e.g. "I was very surprised").
Thank you, Mr. GPY!
GPYI meant the passive voice of verbs.
Passive verbs = passive voice. Okay, I have understood.
GPYAll your other "-ed" words are past participles
Mr. GPY, how I can understand in which cases I should use past participle? I know how to use past participle with perfect tenses (with present perfect, past perfect, present perfect continious etc..)

But I still can't understand how to use it in other occasions? You gave me a lot of examples, Mr. GPY, thank you very much! But it still isn't clear for me, why we can't say: "I'm not surprise" instead of "I`m not surprised" or "I was attack" instead of "I was attacked".
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As I have understood from a previous messages we use ed ending in three occasions.

1) With some verbs (E.g. watched, washed, played) in perfect tenses. (Present perfect, past perfect, present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous)

2) In some verbs (E.g. shaved, played, smelled) in the past simpe tense.

3) And as well as endings in a different words with adding "ed" in the end of a word.

Am I right?
The past participle is not used in continuous forms.
DanilBut it still isn't clear for me, why we can't say: "I'm not surprise" instead of "I`m not surprised" or "I was attack" instead of "I was attacked".
"surprise" and "attack" are verb base forms. The pattern "I am/was (not) + base form of verb" is grammatically impossible. It simply does not make sense in English. Is it more obvious for you with simpler verbs? Is it clear to you that "I'm not go" and "I was think" are ungrammatical?
DanilAs I have understood from a previous messages we use ed ending in three occasions.1) With some verbs (E.g. watched, washed, played) in perfect tenses. (Present perfect, past perfect, present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous)2) In some verbs (E.g. shaved, played, smelled) in the past simpe tense.3) And as well as endings in a different words with adding "ed" in the end of a word.Am I right?
In the case of regular verbs, the same "-ed" form is used for both the past tense and past participle. As we have seen, the past participle has several different uses (perfect tenses, passive voice, adjectival). In the case of irregular verbs, there are usually different words for these two verb forms; usually neither ends in "-ed".

I don't understand what your item 3 refers to.
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