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Hi,

If a group of words make grammatical sense but are neither a clause nor a type of phrase, what are they?

I want to know so that I can punctuate them correctly in a sentence; that is, I want to know if they need a comma to attach them to the main clause.

Unfortunately, I have no good examples. 'with or without you help' may be an example, but I think this is just an ellipse clause as the subject has been omitted.

A type of phrase is usually determined by the head of the phrase and sometimes a group of words clearly is not a phrase or a clause.

Hope you understand my perplexity, thanks!
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Well, there are sentences, which are made up of clauses (main, independent, dependent), and phrases (prepositional, gerund, infinitive, adverb, noun). There are no other grammatical structures I am aware of except interjections.
Thanks, those are the ones I am aware of too. Perhaps a group of words I usually identify that are not phrases, are clauses with an omitted subject.

With or without your help- what would this be?

Secondly, the phrase you have listed are different from the phrases I have read of. They had the following: prepositional, absolute, appositive, gerund, particple and infinitive...

Thanks
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A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate

This is a definition I found froma credible website, Hypergrammar.

This implies that that phrases may not be a part of the phrases you listed above. Your thoughts?
With or without your help - this is a prepositional phrase (actually 2 prepositional phrases, joined by the conjunction 'or'). - written out it is:

with (your help) or without your help
Oh, cool, thanks a lot! Because with is the head of the phrase, it is obvious it is a prep. phrase.

What about these when when the head doesn't seem to show me what type it is:

1) There relationship as been ongoing ever since, much to the frustration for some.

What are the bold and underlined words?

2)along with the many other parties you have hosted.

Is this a dependent clause? what type?

3)We have actually become great friends sharing passions which include poker, clothes, music, drinking

Sharing is the ing form of the verb share, so it is a verbal/non finite verb, correct?
So is it a participle or gerund?

Thanks.

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Eddie88Secondly, the phrase you have listed are different from the phrases I have read of. They had the following: prepositional, absolute, appositive, gerund, particple and infinitive...
I suppose that phrases can be classified in different ways - I found a good reference with a similar classification. But the classification can be two-dimentional: the part of speech of its head, and / or its grammatical function in a given sentence.
Noun phrases - includes special sub-categories: appositive (syntactical category), gerund, infinitive (but this can also function as an adjective or adverb)

Verb phrase (can refer to the predicate of a sentence, but also can be just the verb)
Adverbial phrase
Participial phrase - adjective
Prepositional phrase - but it can also function as a noun, adjective or adverb phrase
Absolute phrase - this is phrase that is almost a clause. It modifies the entire sentence.
Cool thanks. Sounds like you know what you are talking about!

Could you please also answer the question just above your latest answer- thanks heaps!
Eddie881) There relationship as been ongoing ever since, much to the frustration for some.

What are the bold and underlined words? - You can't just arbitrarily group words - you have to break it cown into individual elements. This is actually an adverb, and 2 prepositional phrases.
2)along with the many other parties you have hosted.

Is this a dependent clause? what type? - It cannot be an independent (main) clause because it is a fragment. It is actually a prepositional phrase: along with (preposition) the many other parties (noun phrase, object of preposition), followed by an adjectival (relative) clause, modifying "parties": (that) you have hosted)
3)We have actually become great friends sharing passions which include poker, clothes, music, drinking

Sharing is the ing form of the verb share, so it is a verbal/non finite verb, correct?
So is it a participle or gerund?
If it were written as:
Sharing passions which include poker, clothes, music, and drinking, we have actually become great friends.
it is a participial phrase, modifying the subject, "we".
In the original, it is a gerund phrase. The meaning is different, though!

We have become friends sharing passions. ... where the "friends sharing passions..." is the direct object of the verb. Friends is the subject of the gerund phrase.

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