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I have grammar problems. Have anyone to solve it?

1. The provisional items included in the maintenance works are ‘less’ urgent compared to the fixed items.

* The provisional items included in the maintenance works (which/that) are ‘less’ urgent compared to the fixed items.(Is ‘compared….’ a past participle phase?)

2. The quantities listed in the tender are considered to be the ‘estimated maximum quantities’ of works required based on the recently revealed site conditions.

*(Is ‘listed…’ a past participle phase?)

*(required is a adjective & past participle, Is it correct in usage/ grammar? How to use it if correct? )

*(revealed is a adjective & past participle, Is it correct in usage/ grammar? )

3. We regret to find that the illegal opening remains untouched to date.

* (Is untouched correct? Can I use untouchable in lieu of untouched?)

A grammar book (The Cobuild Series) mentioned that the infinitive without 'to' and the past partciple form of the verb are used in only a few combinations.

Have anyone to explain what is the few combinations? ~Give some example~

Thanks
Comments  
Hello Ben
Ben91081. The provisional items included in the maintenance works are 'less' urgent compared to the fixed items.
"Compared to" is a fixed (idiomatic) phrase, so we'd better take it as it stands without analyzing it grammatically. But please note that "less urgent compared to" is ungrammatical if "less" is not marked by the single quotation marks. It should be "less urgent than".
Ben9108 2. The quantities listed in the tender are considered to be the 'estimated maximum quantities' of works required based on the recently revealed site conditions.
"The quantities listed in the tender" is a contraction of "the quantities (which are) listed in the tender". It is difficult to decide whether this "listed" is a past participle or an adjective. Some grammarians say it is a past participle and others say it is an adjective. A similar analysis could be applied to "required". It is a contraction of "(which are) required". "The recently revealed site conditions" is a correct phrase, and "recently revealed" works here as an adjectival phrase, though the meaning is "the site conditions were recently revealed".
Ben91083. We regret to find that the illegal opening remains untouched to date.
Here "untouched" could be parsed either as an adjective or a past participle. You can take a construct of <Verb + V-ed> in the case the Verb is a linking verb like "remain", "seem", "appear", "look", etc.."Untouched" and "untouchable" are different. If something is "untouchable", you cannot touch it. But in the case something is "untouched", you might touch it if you want to.

paco
Hi Ben,

The provisional items [included in the maintenance works] (which/that) are ‘less’ urgent [compared to the fixed items].

For # 1, “included” and “compared” were used as a participle adjective clause modifying “maintenance work” and “fixed items”. As discussed many times on this forum, depending on how your teacher had taught you, past participles can be viewed as such and used in this type of context.

it's true when we use "more" or "less", typically "than" is used along with them. By in this case, it's an exception becasue [Than] is understood. if we rearaanged the sentence fragment, we'll get:

(which) are ‘less’ urgent [than] the fixed items when compared. That- is the same as "which/that are ‘less’ urgent [compared to the fixed items" without the [Than]. Do you see that?

# 2 is a complex sentence with many participle clauses and participles used as adjectives.

2. The quantities [listed in the tender -clause] [are considered- passive] to be the ‘[estimated maximum quantities- clause]’ of works [required- adjective] [based –adjective] on the recently[ revealed]- adjective] site conditions.

3. We regret to find that the illegal opening remains untouched to date.”

Untouched is used as the passive voice without an agent and thus considered to be a participle adjective here.

Can I use untouchable in lieu of untouched? The answer is NO.
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Thanks

(which) are ‘less’ urgent [than] the fixed items when compared.

I have a problem about the voice in "compared". I think it should be passive voice in sentence.

(...which are 'less' urgent than the fixed items when are compared. ~ clause)

Am i correct?

Other Example

Exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed. (participle phase)

* He was exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed. (Is it correct?)

Yes, you are right.

The provisional items included in the maintenance works are 'less' urgent compared to the fixed items.
= The provisional items included in the maintenance works are 'less' urgent [when they(=provisional items) are]compared to the fixed items.

Exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed.
=He was exhausted by the morning work, and therefore he sprawled himself on bed.

paco
Your asked:

which are 'less' urgent than the fixed items when are compared. ~ clause)

Am i correct?_____________________________________

No, it’s not correct. Apple is less expansive when compared with orange. This is the same parallel sentence like the one you posted. Go back to read my reply. You don’t need to add “are” to “compared” because "compared" is not used as passive voice, rather it's an participle adjective. That’s why I said it depends how you were taught and how much you understood the used of past participle, the difference between participle adjectives and passive voice can be very confusing, just like this one you posted.



Exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed. (participle phase) Yes, and it’s correct.

* He was exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed. (Is it correct?) No, it’s not correct. You attempted to make this a sentence with participle clause and a comma but it’s not.

*These two sentences are correct if on their own. But if you attempted to express the same idea without having to make 2 sentences, you can use participle clause, not passive voice, just like the one above which sound much more fluid in my opinion.
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Thanks for your reply

Apple is less expansive when compared with orange.

You mean that the "compared" is past tense and active voice. Is that right?

Exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed.

He sprawled himself on bed exhausted by the morning work.

How to use past & present participle ? (subject to passive & active action)
"Compared with ..." was originally derived from the contraction of an adverbial clause "when something is compared with ...", but it is now used as a kind of a compound preposition. So, as I told in the first reply, you'd better not analyze it too much grammatically.

(EX) Most Bermudian beaches are small compared with ocean beaches in the States
(EX) This loss was nothing compared with what had been expected by the farmers
(EX) I value them little compared with the beauty you have given me.
(EX) This represents an overall cash increase of 5.9 per cent compared with 2005-06
(EX) Compared with Bill Clinton, George W. Bush is certainly no workaholic

paco
Ben9108Thanks for your reply

Apple is less expansive when compared with orange.

You mean that the "compared" is past tense and active voice. Is that right?

Exhausted by the morning work, he sprawled himself on bed.

He sprawled himself on bed exhausted by the morning work.

How to use past & present participle ? (subject to passive & active action)

Ben,

Yoy aksed: You mean that the "compared" is past tense and active voice. Is that right?

No. but try not to analyze it too much for now. It's only going to confuse you even more by doing that at this time. Just take our words for it. "compared" is used as "agentless" passive voice or past participle used as adjective, depending how you see it. There are many verbs used in this voice:

Ex: The hurricane was packing wind estimated at 90 mph. -Agentless passive

The top wind speed reached as high as 120 mph as forecast.-Agentless passive

When the storm made landfall, the City of Miami was drenched by heavy rains. - passive voice
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