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a. Although he was proven wrong twice already, he believed we had little chance of winning.

We can reduce adverbial clauses by removing the subject and verb to be:

b. Although proven wrong twice already, he believed we had little chance of winning.

c. Although he has been proven wrong twice already, he believes we have little chance of winning.

Can we reduce adverbial clauses that are in different aspects and tenses?

d. Although proven wrong twice already, he believes we have little chance of winning

Is there anything else you can tell me about the omission/reduction of clauses concerning to be?

Thank you
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The answer is yes to all your questions. In sentence a. you could also say: Although he had been proven wrong twice already... Also note that in BrE proved would probably be used instead of proven.

CB
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Cool BreezeThe answer is yes to all your questions. In sentence a. you could also say: Although he had been proven wrong twice already...

Thanks. So just to clarify, the subject and any form of the verb to be can be omitted in adverbial clauses. If we aren't dealing with the verb to be however, the subject is removed, and the verb changed to its ing form?
Cool BreezeAlso note that in BrE proved would probably be used instead of proven
Good to know. Thank you.
English 1b3So just to clarify, the subject and any form of the verb to be can be omitted in adverbial clauses. If we aren't dealing with the verb to be however, the subject is removed, and the verb changed to its ing form?
I don't know. I never thought of something alwaysbeing possible in English!Emotion: smile What I said applies to your original example and the question you asked about it.

CB

PS It'll be the nightless night festival very soon. Helsinki will temporarily lose almost half of its population as people head for the countryside to celebrate Juhannus by the lakeside burning bonfires, camping and having barbecue parties, dancing all night long to a live band, etc. I'm signing out for a while now.