republic: a country governed by elected representatives of the people, and led by a president, not a king or queen

Roman Republic was established after the overthrow of Roman Kingdom in 509 BC. In 44 BC Julis Ceasar declared himself a dictator which resulted in his assasination led by Marcus Britus on Ides of March (15th March) the same year. Then, in 27 BC Augustus, adopted heir of Julius Ceasar, became the emperor. Roman Empire came to an end in 5 AD.

There was also another empire known as Holy Roman Empire. It was not based in Rome, Italy. It was a group of European states which included parts of France, Germany, Austria, and Italy, and which were ruled by an emperor. It was established by Charlemagne in 800, and continued until 1806.


1: Did Roman Republic have some kind of House of Representatives? Did Romans vote? What was the head of government called? A president? Was Roman Republic a first republic in human history?

2: When Julius Ceasar declared himself a dictator, was Roman Republic started to be called a Roman Regime?

3: Holy Roman Empire had nothing to do with Rome, then why was it known so?

Here's my attempt to answer to your questions.

1: The Roman Republic had a constitution, a Senate (composed only by wealthy men) and some assemblies. You can read more about those in wikipedia (here , here and here ). Head of the Republic were two elected consuls, whose mandate lasted one year. Don't be misled in thinking republic=democracy; the Roman republic was not democratic at all (for instance, women and slaves were not citizens).

2. The end of the Roman Republic is controversial. Some scholars think it ended when JC declared himself a dictator (44 BC), some in 31 BC and some in 27 BC. Anyway, I've never heard or read "Roman Regime". What followed is generally referred to as "Roman Empire", which, by the way, didn't end in 5AD (where did you get that info from???). The Western Roman Empire ended in 476 AD; the Eastern one in the mid of the XV century, with the fall of Constantinople (sp?), now Istanbul.

3. As for the name, I recall from my school years (but I might be mistaken ... it was long ago Emotion: stick out tongue) that "Roman" was used to remind of the "old" "Roman Empire", which spread over large territories in Europe, to hint at some sort of cultural and political continuity with the Western Roman Empire (the one that collapsed in 476AD).

Finally, as your questions are not related to grammar, I'm moving this thread. Hope my answer was useful, but apologies in advances ... I'm not a historian! I only happened to study something in high school, and I am afraid I don't remember much of what I studied. Emotion: sad
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 Tanit's reply was promoted to an answer.
1) Yes. The Romans had the 'Senatus'. Senators would be elected by the people. Just like today. Our word 'Senate' is derived from 'Senatus'

2) No. The Roman Republic was known as Senatus Populusque Romanum (Senate and people of Rome). It's abbreviation 'SPQR' was widely used. You can compare it to 'USSR' or 'USA' which stand for 'Union of Socialist Soviet Republics' and 'United States of America' respectively.

When Caesar became dictator the state was still called SPQR. When his adopted heir later became the first emperor, Augustus, the term 'Roman Empire' came into existence. Though I think 'SPQR' would still be used as well. (The Senate was never abolished.)

3) In the Bible it said that if the 'world empire' collapses, the world will be destroyed. So when the Roman Empire fell, the Holy Roman Empire was formed as a 'continuation' of the Roman Empire, eventhough it had nothing to do with ancient Rome.

This way they wanted to prevent the world from being destroyed. Yes, it's silly.... Emotion: stick out tongue