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Hi, I looked at many sources for some help on this question of "when do we use quotation marks and when not?" and reached no clear ground on this. I think using quotation marks for emphasis, not just irony, is used many times both in formal and informal writing situations. I tried to find answers to the use of quotation marks for cases I seem to see by focusing on whether it is to indicate 1) irony and strange use, 2) quotation what someone said, and 3) titles for what could be called 'short' or 'shorter' works, but these efforts seem to fall short in a lot of cases.

How would you explain the use for cases like these?

1. Every "speaking" situation you encounter is an opportunity, in which "meaning" needs to be imposed.
2. This lesson is written to reflect on an "interactive" approach.
3. According to Joe, "The survey indicates people have a positive attitude toward this particular book, finding it 'interesting' and want to find out more about the subject areas discussed in the book."
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1. Every "speaking" situation you encounter is an opportunity, in which "meaning" needs to be imposed.-- Poor punctuation by the writer; oversight by the editor.

2. This lesson is written to reflect on an "interactive" approach.-- Defined specifically somewhere; if not, as above.

3. According to Joe, "The survey indicates people have a positive attitude toward this particular book, finding it 'interesting' and want to find out more about the subject areas discussed in the book." -- Both are direct quotes, the outer one by Joe and the inner one by the people or the survey question itself.
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Thank you. Do you think putting quotation marks around to achieve emphasis acceptable since it seems to be a wide-spread practice? I think most grammarians are against it.

I think these are done for emphasis:

Part of your overall response:
Every "speaking" situation you encounter is an opportunity, in which "meaning" needs to be imposed.-- Poor punctuation by the writer; oversight by the editor.
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If those quotation marks are for emphasis, they show a major misunderstanding of punctuation. I do not think it is a widespread practice-- at least not an acceptable one. Underline for emphasis. Quotation marks show unusual use of a word. Here, for instance, are the Purdue University guidelines:

Use quotation marks to indicate words used ironically, with reservations, or in some unusual way. '
The great march of "progress" has left millions impoverished and hungry.'