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Hey,

I was doing today's SAT Question of the Day. I'll copy it here:

Part of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

The gong, believed to have originated in Western Asia, reached China in the sixth century, where it continues to be used for a wide range of purposes, including as a military signal, a rhythmic accompaniment for vocal performance, and a ritual instrument.

A. including as
B. which include
C. which includes
D. including
E. they include as

The correct answer was A, but I don't think the site gives a sufficient explanation why. I don't see why choice B wouldn't work. It would make the next part of a sentence a adjective subordinate cluase describing purposes. Could someone please explain why choice B wouldn't work?

Thanks a lot in advance!
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Hi,
I was doing today's SAT Question of the Day. I'll copy it here:

Part of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

The gong, believed to have originated in Western Asia, reached China in the sixth century, where it continues to be used for a wide range of purposes, including as a military signal, a rhythmic accompaniment for vocal performance, and a ritual instrument.

A. including as
B. which include
I think the examiner is thinking in this way.
A military signal (etc.) is not a purpose (or use). It's a thing. That's why we'd say 'He used the gong as a military signal'. 'As' is a better way of expressing purpose here.
I tend to agree with him.
C. which includes
D. including
E. they include as

The correct answer was A, but I don't think the site gives a sufficient explanation why. I don't see why choice B wouldn't work. It would make the next part of a sentence a adjective subordinate cluase describing purposes. Could someone please explain why choice B wouldn't work?

Best wishes, Clive
By the way, here is the explanation given:

Here's Why:

Choice A is correct. It avoids the errors of the other options by correctly using the preposition “as” to introduce the “wide range of purposes” for which the gong is used.

I had the same question.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
For it to be "B", the enetence would have to be ...for a wide range of purposes, which include (no "a" here) military signals, rhythmic accompaniments, for vocal performance, and ritual instruments. Without making the words plural to match "purposes", the sentence would be gramatically incorrect.

Hope this helps! - Anon.
Technically, the entire sentence is incorrect. I can only imagine what my professor would say if I wrote a run-on sentence like that. It is very poorly written, and I'm surprised the College Board site would use such an example. The explanation given on the website makes sense; however, the proper use should be . . . . .

F. which include: as.

If you are going to try and fix such a fractured sentence, that is. Emotion: big smile

Have a great day!

"This is the sort of bloody nonsense up with which I will not put." ~Attributed to Winston Churchill, rejecting the rule against ending a sentence with a preposition, c.1948
My son asked the same question. I teach A.P. Literature. I also selected B as my answer, instead of A. I wrote to College Board to ask for a fuller answer, but they simply sent me back their posted answer. I then brought the question to school with me and ran it by other English teachers. We all got the question wrong and answered B. I have been checking my grammar books in order to find a better explanation.
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
As a non-native speaker, I find this type of grammar questions interesting.

The gong continues to be used for a wide range of purposes, including as a military signal, ...

The gong continues to be used as a military signal,...

I think this sentence has a similar structure to the following:

I have looked everywhere, including in the garden.

I have looked in the garden.

As for choice B, I have to ask native speakers this.

Purposes include as a military signal,...

Does this sentence make sense? Is this grammatically correct?

Please corret me if I'm wrong.Emotion: smile
Hi,

I would still explain why Answer B is incorrect in the way I did in my original post.

Let me add a few comments.

It's a matter of the meaning of the word 'purpose', not a matter of grammar. In other words, it's a matter of correct use of vocabulary.

Consider these simple example based on a hammer.
It is incorrect to say eg The purpose of this tool is a hammer.
Note that this is not incorrect grammar, ( just as it is not incorrect grammar to make meaningless statements like 'A hammer is a banana'. )
.However, It is an incorrect use of the word 'purpose'.

Instead, broadly speaking you need to speak of a purpose as a use or activity.
eg The purpose of this tool is to hit nails.
eg The purpose of this tool is hitting nails.
eg The purpose of this tool is (its use) as a hammer to hit nails.
(Its use is often omitted, but is understood to be implied. )

This is why it is correct to say
eg The purpose of the gong is ( its use) as a military signal
but not
eg The purpose of the gong is a military signal.

Clive