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The definition of a sentence is a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate, Or clauses, but always makes a "complete" statement. Is that right? If not, please correct. So here is another question: What is a word group? Is a word group a sentence or not? Is phrase a word group? Is clause a word group? If they both are word groups, then a word group can be a sentence, also can not be a sentence.

Even though they have had to fight for funding, these scientists have persisted in their research. Here the subordinate clause: "Even though ......funding", what is its function here? An adverb or adjective? What does it modify?

Thanks for replying!
Comments  
"Even though they have had to fight for funding" is an introductory clause; it "sets the stage".
A clause constitutes a grammatical sentence: it has a subject and a verb.
So the clause can not be an adverb or an adjective.
MIA6The definition of a sentence is a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate, Or clauses, but always makes a "complete" statement. Is that right? If not, please correct. So here is another question: What is a word group? Is a word group a sentence or not? Is phrase a word group? Is clause a word group? If they both are word groups, then a word group can be a sentence, also can not be a sentence.

Even though they have had to fight for funding, these scientists have persisted in their research. Here the subordinate clause: "Even though ......funding", what is its function here? An adverb or adjective? What does it modify?

Thanks for replying!

To your question, it’s debatable which one is the clause because theoretically, we can rearrange the sentence and still make equal sense.

“The scientists have persisted in their research even though / they have had to fight for funding, “

Here is a helpful guide:

These are common dependent clause markers: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.

In any case, this is a sentence with dependant clause.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
«What does it modify?»

It modifies the rest of the sentence, however long it is.
See The difference between a phrase and a sentence (Chris).

An even though clause is an adverbial clause.

CJ
Well if having a predicate and subject is a necessary condition for a sentence, then what about "Thank You". I think it's a sentence which conveys a complete sense.

GB
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Hi,

Well if having a predicate and subject is a necessary condition for a sentence, then what about "Thank You". I think it's a sentence which conveys a complete sense.

I can accept that as a sentence. The subject 'I' is understood: (I) thank you.

However, I'd have trouble considering 'Yes' as a sentence.

Best wishes, Clive