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Dear teachers,

Would you please help me analyzing the following sentences and tell me which adverbials are optional and which ones are obligatory?

1. They parted good friends.

“good friends” = Subject complement or Adverbial (optional or obligatory) ?

2. They married young.

“Young” = Subj. compl. or Adverbial (opt. or oblig.) ?

3. The sun shone bright.

= bright = Adverbial of manner ? (opt. or oblig.?)

4. Hungrily, the dog smelled at the package.

Verb = “smell” or “smell at”?

Direct object = “at the package”; OR

“the package = object of the preposition “at”?

Hungrily = optional or obligatory adverbial of manner?

5. She has quite rapidly become an expert.

"an expert" = Subj. complement

"quite rapidly" = Adv. of time (opt. or oblig.) ?

6. The phone rang loudly in the night. =

optional or obligatory adverbials?

7. She is remaining at .

"is remaining" = intransitive verb ?

"at Cambridge" = optional or oblig. adverbial of place?

8. My watch has disappeared from my desk.

"has disappeared" = intransitive verb ?

"from my desk" = opt. or oblig. adverbial of place ?

9. The soldiers fought well. = S V A(manner) ?

optional or obligatory?

10. She agreed to be my friend for life.

"agreed to be" = transitive verb?

"Agreed to be" = transitive verb + complemental infinitive ?

"my friend" = direct object?

"for life" = adverbial of time (opt. or oblig.)?

Thanks a million for your patience.

Kind regards,

1 2 3 4
Comments  


Hello Hela again

1. They parted good friends.
This sentence can be a contracted form of "They parted, being good friends". So "good friends" can be parsed as an subject complement as well as an adverbial. "Good friends" is optional, because "they parted" makes sense by itself.
2. They married young.
Same as 1.
3. The sun shone bright.
Same as 1.
4. Hungrily, the dog smelled at the package.
"Smell" here is an intransitive verb and "at the package" is an adverbial PP (direction/target of "smell"). "The package" is the object of the preposition "at". "Hungrily is the optional adverbial of manner.
5. She has quite rapidly become an expert.
"An expert" is the subject complement. "Quite rapidly" is "intensifier + adverb of time (optional)".
6. The phone rang loudly in the night.
Loudly is an adverb and "in the night" is an adverbial PP. Both are optional.
7. She is remaining at Cambridge.
"Is remaining" is a present progressive verbal phrase of the intransitive verb "remain"."At Cambridge" is an obligatory adverbial of place.
8. My watch has disappeared from my desk.
"Has disappeared" is the present perfect verbal phrase of the intransitive verb "disappear". "From my desk" is an optional adverbial of place.
9. The soldiers fought well.
"Well" is an optional adverb of manner.
10. She agreed to be my friend for life.
I parse "agreed to be" as <intransitive verb + adverbial infinitive (manner)>. "My friend" is the subject complement and "for life" is an optional adverbial of time.

paco
Thanks, Paco. I'll study that carefully and I'll come back to you if necessary.

Kind regards,

Hela
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Dear teachers,

If you wouldn't mind I have plenty of sentences I'd like you to correct. Would it be possible for me to send them to you bit by bit for a correction?

I'll start here with the first six. Please tell me if I can carry on.

1) The sun shone on us brightly.

the sun = subject
shone = intransitive verb ?
on us = adverbial of place ???
brightly = adverbial of manner

2) She pitched a perfect game and got a gold medal.

She = subject
Pitched = transitive verb
A perfect game = direct object

And = linker / connector ?
Got = transitive verb
A gold medal = direct object.

3) The Jones and the Martins want to swap houses.

The Jones and the Martins = subject
a) want = transitive verb + to swap houses = direct object (?) OR
b) want to swap = transitive verb + houses = direct object (?)

4) My best friend’s son has become a first violin in the orchestra of the Royal Opera House. (Does this sentence make sense?)

My best friend’s son = subject
Jas become = copular / linking verb
A first violin = subject related complement
In the orchestra of the ROH = adverbial of place

(should I put the adverbial first in the sentence?)

5) The customer sent the store a letter a) complaining about the service / b) of complaint about the service.
The customer = subject
Sent = ditransitive verb

the store = indirect object
A letter = direct object
a) of complaint about the service = object of the preposition “of” (?) / or adverbial ??

OR

a letter of complaint = DO

about the service = object related complement ??

b) what about the parsing of "Complaining about the service" ???

6) The company considers Mr Jones the best man for the job.

The company = subject
Considers = transitive verb (?)
Mr Jones = direct object
The best man for the job = object realated complement

Thank you very much in advance for your help.
Hela
Please don't forget to give me an answer whenever possible.

Thank you in advance.
Hello Hela

Sorry, I've only just seen your thread:

1. I would take "shine on" as a prepositional verb, and "us" as the prepositional object. But other parsers will disagree...

2. I wonder whether we could take "a perfect game" as a cognate object here. She didn't literally "pitch" the game; she pitched balls in such a way that she did well in the game. Thus "a game" denotes something that is already implied in the verb.

I would simply call "and" a coordinating conjunction.

3. I would take "to swap houses" as the object of "want", and "houses" as the object of "swap".

4. Yes, the sentence is fine: the violins in an orchestra are divided into "first violins" and "second violins". The "in the...ROH" phrase would sound a little odd if fronted. "Adverbial of place" seems ok; though it isn't so much "location", as "context for a role". (I wonder whether there's a subdivision of adverbials that relates to "organizational context".)

5. I would take "a letter of complaint" as the direct object, and "about the service" as a prepositional phrase that acts as an adjectival attribute of the direct object.

With the "complaining" version, I would take "complaining about" as a participle (prepositional verb) modifying "letter", and "the service" as the prepositional object.

6. Yes, I think that's how I'd do it too.

I expect I've erred somewhere or other, though; in which case another member will point it out!

MrP
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There are many sentences here, Hela! I don't have enough time to go over all of them now, but I'll try to come back to the forums some time during the weekend.

What I can tell you, for now, is that adverbials are, in general, considered optional elements in a sentence. They are "circumstances" of the verb and, even when from the point of view of meaning the presence or the absence of a given adverbial may make a big difference in the meaning of the whole sentence, from a grammatical point of view that is not so. I can't say this will be true to every single sentence you may think of; but it is what grammarians say.

I'll come back to this later. Emotion: smile

Miriam
Hello Hela

Please allow to put my 2 cents only to the question #1.
Hela1) The sun shone on us brightly.
the sun = subject : shone = intransitive verb ?
on us = adverbial of place ??? : brightly = adverbial of manner

I parse it that "shone" is an intransitive verb and "on us" is an adverbial prep phrase.

If "shine on" is a transitive phrasal verb, you could be able to say "We were shone on (by the Sun)". You use "be shone on" like "The spotlight was shone on the actor" but I don't think you would say "The actor was shone on by the spotlight" for the passive voice of "The spotlight shone on the actor". So I take the "shine" in "shine on X" of the active voice is an intransitive verb and "on X" is an adverbial to idicate the direction of sun/light beams.

paco
I must admit, "to be shone on by" sounds rare but idiomatic. Cf., from Ch. 10 of Brontë's The Professor:

"More obvious, more prominent, shone on by the full light of the large window, were the occupants of the benches just before me..."

MrP
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