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I originally wrote this sentence with parentheses instead of a dash, but was a bit puzzled as to how I could keep the semicolons and the quote (and by extension the accompanying parenthetical reference). I replaced the parentheses with dashes; but in a pair, they foiled my form once again. Can I use the single dash and keep the semicolon?

At the end of the narrative, the sobered Wedding Guest (as well as the reader) finally come to the conclusions embodying the didactic function that Coleridge intended the story to have: first, that striving after sobriety and wisdom is better than seeking after pleasant company and festivities – “Oh sweeter than the marriage feast,/ To walk together to the kirk” (7.38.601, 603); second, that men must always be prepared to face the consequences of their actions; and finally, that the interdependence of love and prayer are foundational in one’s attitude toward God and his creation.
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Hello, Dreamer - and welcome to English Forums.

No, but no semicolons are required. Why number the conclusions? Then the m-dash works fine after the closing parenthesis, since commas are generally omitted after stronger marks of punctuation. However, the m-dash is generally considered informal, so I don't know whether you really wish to use it (I like it here, though).

At the end of the narrative, the sobered Wedding Guest (as well as the reader) finally come to the conclusions embodying the didactic function that Coleridge intended the story to have: that striving after sobriety and wisdom is better than seeking after pleasant company and festivities – “Oh sweeter than the marriage feast...To walk together to the kirk” (7.38.601, 603) that men must always be prepared to face the consequences of their actions, and that the interdependence of love and prayer are foundational in one’s attitude toward God and his creation.

You also don't need the interline slash, which is properly used to indicate two sequential lines of verse reduced to one line. I would have a lot more to say about your wordiness ('conclusions embodying the didactic function' is really unforgiveable), but I don't want to distract from the immediate problem. However, your passage could and should be reduced to about 2/3rds of its present length. If your whole paper plods on like this and I were your professor, I would tie the albatross around your neck!
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Thank you for the welcome and the feedback.

Haha, I wondered how the length would come across. Wordiness isn't something that comes naturally to me (except in my rambling thoughts, of course), but in this case it happened to be what the doctor ordered. >.<
But fear not! I managed to keep the rest of the paper rather less verbose. This particular portion was in the last paragraph, and it seemed as good an opportunity as any to string some thoughts together in a wordy climax.
And please, do spare me! I'm finding university preparation quite difficult enough without the added burden of an albatross and haunting, guilty glares. >.0