"They are" and "He is" ,is this a sentence ?
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I'm more concerned with fragments, not meaningless sentence.

To me, "I am" without context is not a meaningless sentence. It is a fragment.
1. I did.

2. a. Who knocked?
b. I did.

How do I explain to the original poster that 2. b. is a sentence, but 1. is not?
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Avangi1. I did.

2. a. Who knocked?
b. I did.

How do I explain to the original poster that 2. b. is a sentence, but 1. is not?

1. I did is meaningless without context.

2. a. Who knocked?
b. I did.. (I did answers the question Who knocked? Who knocked? constiitutes the context.)

I am is meaningless. I am what I am is a sentence.
Perhaps I worry too much about definitions. The original poster wanted to know if his examples were sentences or phrases. My understanding is that any group of words is a phrase. Well, I guess that get's qualified by "which go together," which seems a bit loose.
I think that all sentences are phrases, but not all phrases are sentences. I don't know much about fragments. I suppose they too are phrases. I don't know if the words in a fragment have to go together. I suppose both fragments and phrases could be qualified as potential parts of grammatical sentences. Of course sentences which are grammatical may not make sense, so we'd say they're not idiomatic.

I believe you're saying that there's no such thing as a sentence which doesn't make sense. The reason for this is that by definition, a sentence must make sense.Emotion: smile

So by your definition, we should stop saying, "Your sentence is grammatical, but it's incorrect because it's not idiomatic."
I agree with Avangi.

I am. He is. We are. She did. etc. are sentences.

The context and word count is not relevant to the grammatical definition of a sentence. If a group of words is a sentence in one context, it is a sentence in all contexts.

This is a sentence, too:

This is a fragment:
If I go to the supermarket in my car with my brother and your sister on Saturday afternoon.

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According to the Ofxord Dictionary & Thesaurus (2007 edition), a sentence is a gramatically complete series of words with (implied ) subject and predicate, and expresses a complete thought .

Now if I say this : 'I am'. ; does this express a complete thought ? Emotion: geeked

If yes, then could you please explain that 'complete thought' to me ?
I exist.

It's not a lot different from, "I am I, Don Quixote."
"Don Quixote" is an appositive, which means it can be eliminiated without changing the essential meaning of the sentence.
Therefore, "I am I," is a sentence.

Cogito, ergo sum. Here too, you can eliminate either one of the independent clauses.
"I think," is a sentence. "I am" is a sentence.
If "I think, therefore I am," is a sentence, so is "I think, and I am."

It's a little more difficult to justify "I do" on these grounds, but still possible.

Clearly, "to be" means "to exist," apart from it's use in expressions like "I am dumb."
But does "do" have a meaning in its own right?

Consider the adage, "Those who can't do, teach."
So I may say, "I can do."
Therefore, I can say, "I do."Emotion: smile
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AvangiTherefore, I can say, "I do."

Do you take this woman to be your lawful wedded wife?

I don't know of anyone who would debate that the answer does not express a complete thought!

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