+0
"Sir, I have read in grammar book that if the main verb is in the past tense then the verb in the subordinate clause will also be in past tense. I tried to follow this rule that if the first verb is past tense, the second one should be past as well, but I get to read from other places, such as news articles, with sentences not following this rule like this one below:

- Scientists and broadcasters said that they have captured footage of an elusive giant squid roaming the depths of the Pacific Ocean, showing it in its natural habitat for the first time ever.

In the above sentence, the first verb "said" is past tense but the second verb "have captured" is present perfect tense. Please explain and advise me on this one. Thank you."
+0
You asked a similar question here, https://www.EnglishForward.com/English/ThoughtPresentPastTense/bhxngj/post.htm . and received some detailed answers.

As we have said many times in many threads, if the situation reported is still valid at the time of reporting, then backshifting is permissible but no obligatory. That's it in a nutshell.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Comments  
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
But how do you know if the situation reported is still valid ?
If you don't know, then backshift.
John said "I have been to Spain."
John said that he has been to Spain.
In this example, is it perfectly correct to not back shift the tense ?
Teachers: We supply a list of EFL job vacancies
ortonRIn this example, is it perfectly correct to not back shift the tense ?
Not in any reported-speech exercise.
Mister MicawberNot in any reported-speech exercise.
I think that exercises that suggest that non-nackshifting is incorrect do a disservice to learners. It is often not incorrect and quite often natural.
If its incorrect grammatically, then why in some new articles or novels I find this rule to be violated ?
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
fivejedjonI think that exercises that suggest that non-nackshifting is incorrect do a disservice to learners. It is often not incorrect and quite often natural.
A realistic approach, but not one used in nackshifting exercises, I'm afraid. Perhaps we could recall and revise all the EFL/ESL textbooks on the market.
Show more