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Hi.

What is the difference between 'be' and 'serve as' in:

Perhaps the manifold local models that researchers and activists have begun to describe in recent years can serve as a basis for other regimes of understanding and practice.

?Thanks in advance

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soheil1What is the difference between 'be' and 'serve as' in:

Not much.

'be', 'serve as', 'be used as'. I suppose you could say that the last two in this list emphasize the utility of the models more than just 'be' does, while 'be' makes the models more directly connected to the basis for the other regimes.

Compare:

These principles are the foundation of the theory. (be)
These principles can help to build the foundation of the theory. (serve as)

The connection between 'principles' and 'theory' is stronger in the first sentence than in the second.

CJ