I am curious if the word combination (*) makes sense to say US and GB nationals.

In my mother tongue (*) means the following ( typical scenario):

(1) suppose somebody comes down with say a bad cold and has to stay in bed for a few days

(2) this person ( patient) calls a local outpatient clinic; a general practitioner is supposed to come to the patient's and examine him ( make necessary prescriptions, etc)

also, the general practicioner will issue ( ="open") what we call the "sick leave document" in our country

(3) when the patient fully recovers, he goes to the outpatient clinic (to see the same doctor who had "opened" the sick leave document ). If the doctor sees his patient is just like new again, he "closes" the patient's sick leave document.

(4) Finally, our hero ( one time patient) has to go back to work ( where he is supposed to hand his "sick leave document" to his boss ( or the accounting, ot whoever deals with this red tape) )

Now, what do you think is the English for "sick leave document" ( US or GB equivalent)? :-)

thank you in advance

Well, realize I started laughing when I got to the part about the doctor coming to the patient's house. A doctor hasn't made housecalls in the US in decades.

But in any case, in the US, each company will handle illnesses in its own way. If you are only out for a few days, you usually have nothing. In many companies, if you are out for three days (this is company policy -- nothing to do with the law) you might be asked for "a doctor's note." There is no specific format - it will probably be written on the doctor's prescription pad (The paper he uses to write prescriptions that are filled at the pharmacy) and it will say something like "Joe Smith was advised to take several days rest to recover from the flu."

If you are going to out for an extended period of time (you will have an operations, you were in a bad car accident, etc.) then there will be forms for short-term or long-term disability as well as medical leave documents, but each company will have its own form and you ask your doctor to complete it.
Thank you, Grammar Geek!

A detailed and very interesting answer :-)