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Small clauses

I am having trouble identifying the types of predicates in the following small clauses (category wise)

SC stands for small clause

I understand that SC should have a subject and a predicate

We let [ sc Halloween take over]

Then, we may have heard [sc bats scream]

[sc Bats in the neighbourhood] is never any fun.

[With [ sc everyone completely petrified]] we cancelled our party.

The witch made [sc the pumpkin lord of the night]

In terms of Small Clauses can they have a tense catergory? I would think yes because of the last small clause above where petrified -ed is marked.
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Here's my understanding of it.

By definition, small clauses lack any constituent that carries a tense marker, so they can't have tense. Any tense you feel is present there comes from the tense in the main clause with which the small clause is associated.

The subject of a small clause is always a noun phrase. The predicate is everything else, which can be any kind of phrase. Noun, adjective, prepositional, or verb phrases are common. If it is a verb phrase, however, the verb is non-finite; it has to be; it has no tense. Actually it's "worse" than that. The verb can't even have the "to" of an infinitive. If it has a tense or infinitival "to", then what you have is not a small clause.

petrified is an adjective. It can't have tense. You have misanalyzed it.

CJ
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I forgot. You wanted to know the predicate categories. After my last post, this should be a piece of cake, but in any case:

We let [ sc Halloween take over] VP

Then, we may have heard
[sc bats scream] VP

[sc Bats in the neighbourhood] is never any fun. PP

[With [ sc everyone completely petrified]] we cancelled our party. AP

The witch made [sc the pumpkin lord of the night] NP

Remember, a small clause is simply [NP XP].

CJ
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Comments  
angv21In terms of Small Clauses can they have a tense catergory? I would think yes because of the last small clause above where petrified -ed is marked.
I more or less agree. The problem, however, is that you can also have subclauses which are non-finite.

E.g. While driving his car, John looked to the clear blue sky through his sunroof.

/ Adverbial / Subject / Predicate /

You cannot say that 'driving' is simple present, nor can you say that is it a present progressive.
It's a non-finite present participle clause. Clearly, there's no finite form in this instance.

Kind regards,
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
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Thank you!

CalifJim, I now understand the difference between a small clause and the main clause.

You are absolutely right in regards to petrified. I should of know it was an adjective, I completely misanalyzed the word itself and the sentence.

Thanks for your input. [Y]