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Hello, everyone!

I'm translating a text and I got stuck with a few words/phrases. I was hoping that someone could help me with them. I'm providing the full text, but I need explanations for the bold phrases only (this term "(human) scale" is particularly driving me crazy. Thank you very much in advance.

A major figure in Japanese architecture since the late 1950s, Fumihiko Maki is recognized for his architectural and urban design work as well as his contributions to architectural theory. Fumihiko Maki's work is characterized by his critical development of the modern model, his desire to create a contemporary urban architecture and spaces of public appearance, and his attempt to fuse design concepts of the Hast and West. Fumihiko Maki is known for Fumihiko Maki's rational approach, intelligent combination of technology with craftsmanship, and delicate details, all of which are illustrated in projects for cultural, residential, commercial, educational as well as office, convention, and sports facilities.
Fumihiko Maki is one of the few Japanese architects of his generation to have studied, worked, and taught in the United States and Japan. Following Fumihiko Maki's architecture studies at Tokyo University, Fumihiko Maki obtained master of architecture degrees at Cranbrook Academy of Art (1953) and the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University (1954). Fumihiko Maki worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in New York (1954-55) and with Josep Lluis Sert (Sert, Jackson and Associates; 1955-58) in Cambridge, Massachusetts before establishing Fumihiko Maki and Associates in Tokyo in 1965. Awarded a Graham Foundation Fellowship in 1958, Fumihiko Maki went on two extensive research trips to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and northern and southern Europe. Impressed by the formal and spatial organization of settlements, particularly the communities along the Mediterranean coast, Fumihiko Maki became interested in collective forms. Impressions from this trip led to his first urban design proposal, elaborated with Masato Otaka for the redevelopment of west Shinjuku in Tokyo - conceived not as an actual plan but as an illustration of "group form". Fumihiko Maki further developed this concept in Fumihiko Maki's investigations in Collective Form, published in 1964 as one of three paradigms of collective forms. In contrast to "compositional form" and "megaform", Fumihiko Maki's "group form" it a more flexible urban organization based on a human scale in which the parts and the whole are mutually independent an connected through various linkages.
A member of the Metabolist movement - a group of ambitious postwar Japanese architects who advocated the embrace of new technology with a concomitant belief in architecture's organic, humanist qualities?since 1959 Fumihiko Maki remained at the fringe of the group, concentrating on space and the relationship between solid and void and not on schemes for entire cities based on industrial lechnology. Fumihiko Maki's attempt at an integration of architecture and urbanism brought him close to Team X (ten), whose meeting Fumihiko Maki attended in I960 in southern France. Projects of the 1970s, which express Fumihiko Maki's idea of loosely connected and articulated parts, human scale, and transitional spaces, include the Kato Gakuen Elementary School (1972) in Numazu and the Tsukuba University Central Building (1974). The latter already features the forms ol the stepped pyramid and the cross, which play a major organizing role in the Iwasaki Art Museum (1979) as well as the YKK Guest House (1982) and Fumihiko Maki's later works.
The project that best reflects the idea of "group form" is also Fumihiko Maki's most renowned early work: the Hillside Terrace Apartment Complex in Tokyo, realized in six phases between 1969 and 1992. This residential and commercial ensemble is a rare example of a comprehensive long-term development of a large site in a Japanese city. It features a unified architectural style on an intimate human scale, with sidewalks and transitional spaces providing pedestrian access to shops and preserving privacy for the apartments on the upper levels.
Fumihiko Maki's preference for collaged and fragmentary composition, similar to the layered spaces of traditional Japanese architecture and gardens, is particularly evident in the facade of the Wacoal Media Center (1985). The so-called Spiral Building echoes the heterogeneous urban context of Tokyo and, like the TEPIA Building (1989), pays tribute to icons of 20th-century architecture and Cubist art in particular. The Spiral Building also illustrates the concept of phenomenological depth (oku): the main gallery space, surrounded by a gently sloping semicylindrical ramp, is situated at the hack of the building and shielded from the street by the entrance lobby, the cafe, and gallery space. Naturally illuminated from above, it can be seen from the street entrance. An intimate relationship between the inside and the outside is createtl by the broad staircase that shows in the facade. It is equipped with chairs and provides a rare (nonpaying) space in Tokyo for visitors to relax and watch the street below. Fumihiko Maki's effort to relate to the particular environment ol each place is further illustrated in Fumihiko Maki's National Museum of Modern Art (1986) in Kyoto, the facade of which features an orthogonal pattern in tune with the traditional grid of the city as well as a symmetry, a reference to the surrounding neoclassical buildings.
Fumihiko Maki's attempt at dealing a public architecture in Japan, where such a concept traditionally did not exist, is obvious in his sports and convention facilities. The expressive stainless-steel roofs of the Fujisawa Municipal Gymnasium (1984), the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium (1990), and the Makuhari Convention Center (1989 and 1998) assure these buildings of a strong presence in the city. The sports complex of the Metropolitan Gymnasium at Sendagya Station forms a dynamic landscape of three major individual buildings positioned to create an overall ensemble and connected through pedestrian spaces that provide ever-changing views of the scenery, recalling Japanese strolling gardens. Fumihiko Maki pays close attention not only to the overall form of the buildings but also to their structure and delicate detail, which, as Fumihiko Maki points out, give architecture its rhythm and scale.
A recurring aspect in Fumihiko Maki's designs is his masterful use of light, a quality that is further developed in Fumihiko Maki's works of the 1990s. The Graduate School Research Center (1994) at Keio University's Shonan Fujisawa Campus is characterized by its transparent entrance wall and the brise-soleil of perforated aluminum panels. The Tokyo Church of Christ (1995) features a shop-like translucent wall of light in the main hall, separating the building from the chaotic surrounding and providing a place for spiritual reflection.
Together with Arata Isozaki, Kisho Kurokawa, and Kazuo Shinohara, Fumihiko Maki is one of the few Japanese architects of his generation to enjoy international success and fame. Fumihiko Maki's works outside Japan include the Center for the Arts (1993) at Yerba Buena Gardens in San Francisco, the Isar B?k (1995) near Munich, the Floating Pavilion (1996) in Groningen, and the projected Children's House in Poland. Fumihiko Maki has been honored with numerous prizes, including the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1993.

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Hi,
Some of these expressions seem quite straightforward: remained at the fringe of the group, Japanese strolling gardens, assure these buildings of a strong presence in the city, a recurring aspect, transitional spaces, layered spaces, spaces of public appearance (spaces for public assembly ??).

Is it that you don't have a conception in your mind of the meanings of these expressions, or that you understand what they mean, but would like to find better words to express them??

I too am thrown off by "human scale." Do you have alternative words for "scale" or for "human scale"? Is "scale" derived from the same word here as in your expression, "give architecture its rhythm and scale"??

How do you understand "his critical development of the modern model??

Edit. A/S is probably right about "human scale," although I can't think of examples smaller than human scale.
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"spaces of public appearance". I would interpret this as "public spaces" - the places where you commonly see people gathering together, such as parks, stadiums, and halls.
"human scale." In between "grand scale" and "small scale" ; sized to fit people. An example of "grand scale" is the gothic church with very high vaulted ceilings and vast interiors where people feel small
"at the fringe of the group" Refers to the Metabolist movement. He was not in the center of this group, but on the edge, adopting some of its characteristics, but not all of them.
transitional spaces - areas that are in between two or more major areas - where people walk from one place to another.
assure these buildings of a strong presence - guarantee that the buildings will stand out from the others.
hack- typographical error. It should be "back"
layered spaces - think of terraces where there are many levels
strolling - meaing walking very slowly. Gardens where people walk slowly to enjoy the flowers, streams, and sculptures.
recurring -appearing again and again as in a pattern.
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Comments  
AvangiIs it that you don't have a conception in your mind of the meanings of these expressions, or that you understand what they mean, but would like to find better words to express them??
A little bit of both but not having a conception of the meanings is generally a much bigger problem, because if I have absolutely no idea what a word or a phrase means, I cannot translate it at all. On the other hand, if I can grasp the meaning of the word, I can translate it, although it may be very clumsy.
AvangiHow do you understand "his critical development of the modern model??
I use the same word, model. It has the same form in my language.

Thank you, AlpheccaStars! It was so nice of you to help, I'm very grateful to you!
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Hi there,

We architects commonly have a rethoric of our own that is inherent to the way we design. It's very instructive that it becomes a langaga in itrself, difficult to tranlate. As architect, I have translated architecture related texts between Spanish French and English and know how tough it is. Here's my help:

spaces of public appearence: probably means spaces with a lot of public significance, whose pressence in the city is meaningful
human scale: means a design that is related to human proportions and psychological needs, a design for humans that takes a lot into account the scale of the individual
at the fringe of the group: not very well written in my opinion, means a little outside of the group, a little out of it
transitional spaces: spaces you go through from one place to another
intimate human scale: again, this means a scale (size) of things that is adequate for humans and in this case, intimate
layered spaces: means that there are several depths of perception one space opens upon another upon another etc...
hack of the building???never heard that
staircase that shows in: means that it is apparent in the façade, not invisible but that it shows as an outstanding element (shows in same thing)
assure of a strong pressence: this means that those buildings give a lot of personality to the city
strolling: probably he means meditation gardens although it's not the translation propely speaking
recurring: a leit-motiv, something that comes back or repeats itslef frequently

Hope this help came in time