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Hello all!

I ought to phone my parents tonight ('but I probably won't have time')

All students should submit their work by a given date('... but some of them don't)

First sentence's explanation seems logical to me, but I really don't understand the second one. All students should submit their work by a given date means they don't have to submit their work by a given date but they had better do it. But author of the book says should expresses " some of them don't ".

Would you mind helping me so as to understand it?
Comments  
should = rule, requirement, etc.
Some people may not follow that rule.

People should stop at a red light, but we all know that some people don't.
Thank you Philip, but the first time I saw the sentence, I thought the author meant all students had better submit their work by a given date, but they are not obligated to do. Thus they can submit their work whenever they want. Am I wrong?
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NugsoI thought the author meant all students had better submit their work by a given date, but they are not obligated to do. Thus they can submit their work whenever they want.
I can't speak for the author, but I'd say no. Given date sounds like a deadline to me, so if a student submits his late, he will likely flunk.
So as Philip mentioned, by saying should he ought to have meant only 'some of them'. Thanks.
Nugso... explanation ... I really don't understand the second one.
Me neither. should and ought to are concerned with what is advisable. They say nothing about what really happens eventually.

I ought to phone ~ It would be a good idea to phone ~ It is advisable for me to phone.
All students should submit ... ~ It would be a good idea to submit ... ~ It is advisable for all students to submit ....

I don't see the phrases in parentheses as an explanation of what the preceding sentences express. I don't think you should be looking at it that way. For example, "but I probably won't have time" is not at all what is expressed by the sentence "I ought to phone my parents tonight". There's nothing in the original sentence that has to do with not having enough time.

Rather, these are clauses that can be attached to the original sentence without conflicting with the meaning of the original. So you could say "I ought to phone my parents tonight" to say it would be a good idea to do that, or you could say "I ought to phone my parents tonight, but I probably won't have time" to say it would be a good idea, but you probably won't do it.

The use of "don't" instead of "won't" in the second example is puzzling. I would have said "won't". You could say "All students should ... by a given date" to mean it would be a good idea for them to submit their work by that date, or you could say "All students should submit their work by a given date, but some of them won't" to mean that it would be a good idea, but not all of them will actually submit their work by that date.

CJ
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Thank you CalifJim.
CalifJimI don't see the phrases in parentheses as an explanation of what the preceding sentences express. I don't think you should be looking at it that way. For example, "but I probably won't have time" is not at all what is expressed by the sentence "I ought to phone my parents tonight". There's nothing in the original sentence that has to do with not having enough time.
I think I have just expressed my problem wrong, I beg your pardon. I meant that the author's aim was to probably show how should and ought to enriche the sentence.
CalifJimRather, these are clauses that can be attached to the original sentence without conflicting with the meaning of the original. So you could say "I ought to phone my parents tonight" to say it would be a good idea to do that, or you could say "I ought to phone my parents tonight, but I probably won't have time" to say it would be a good idea, but you probably won't do it.
I did not think I could say it would be a good idea to do that, just the second one came to my mind, thanks again. Emotion: smile
CalifJimThe use of "don't" instead of "won't" in the second example is puzzling. I would have said "won't". You could say "All students should ... by a given date" to mean it would be a good idea for them to submit their work by that date, or you could say "All students should submit their work by a given date, but some of them won't" to mean that it would be a good idea, but not all of them will actually submit their work by that date.
I just took a look at the book again, because I might have read it wrong.( won't - don't). Unfortunately, I wrote it correct. So I did not guess it wrong at all.

I'm sorry if I made a mistake(typos). Also I might have misunderstood your point. ( I have a hard time understanding/reading).

Another note: I feel like everytime I write a post, I have to write " I'm sorry if I made a mistake". Because I'm really not sure whether I'm doing it correct. So I apologize for writing this all the time.
NugsoI have a hard time understanding/reading
Don't worry. Just go slowly and have a dictionary nearby in case you need it. Emotion: smile
NugsoI just took a look at the book again, because I might have read it wrong.( won't - don't). Unfortunately, I wrote it correct. So I did not guess it wrong at all.
That's what I suspected. If I had written the book, I would have written "won't". I think that makes more sense than "don't".

CJ