+1

How are you, everyone?

1) He has a lot of friends. Some of them are from Europe. (o)
2) He has a lot of friends, some of whom are from Europe. (o)
3) He has a lot of friends, some of them being from Europe. (x)
4) He has a lot of friends, some of them from Europe. (x)
5) His friends, some of them being from Europe, are quite interested in Korean history. (o)

I learned that this "absolute construction" option is available only with medial, not final, relative clauses (and only if the grammatical subject of the medial clause is the same as that of the main clause. Whereas a medial relative clause provides background information, a sentence-final relative clause provides major information--information that should not be reduced.

While above 3) and 4) seem to be incorrect by above rule, however, I see frequently those kind of absolute construction with "some of them, most of them, all of them, both of them, few of them".

1. Do above examples 1) to 5) with "some of, most of pronoun" belong to 'the non restrictive modifier' or 'absolute construction'?


2. Are above 3) and 4) really incorrect grammartically?


3. If both are correct grammartically;

1) what's the difference between 3) and 4) with/without being?

2) would you introduce me the general rule with conditions to make 'the non restrictive modifier' or 'absolute construction' especially with "some of, most of pronoun"?


Eagerly waiting for your clear explanation,

Best RGDS

+1

1) He has a lot of friends. Some of them are from Europe.
Two independent clauses expressed as two sentences.

2) He has a lot of friends, some of whom are from Europe.
Non-restrictive relative clause.

3) He has a lot of friends, some of them being from Europe.
Participle clause. Since it has its own subject (which the minority of participle clauses have), it's called an absolute construction, specifically an absolute participle clause.

4) He has a lot of friends, some of them from Europe.
Many grammarians include this in the category of absolute constructions even though it lacks a participle. I have also heard it called a small clause, which is simply a noun phrase followed by any kind of phrase that serves as a predicate but shows no tense.

5) His friends, some of them being from Europe, are quite interested in Korean history.
Another participle clause as described in 3).


Opinions may vary on the analyses above.


deepcosmos1. Do above examples 1) to 5) with "some of, most of pronoun" belong to 'the non restrictive modifier' or 'absolute construction'?

Answered above. I would say that all absolute constructions are non-restrictive and non-modifying. I don't see any of those five sentences as containing any restrictive modifiers.

deepcosmos2. Are above 3) and 4) really incorrect grammartically? grammatically?

I would not say so, especially not 4), although I find 3) awkward stylistically.

deepcosmos1) what's the difference between 3) and 4) with/without being?

Answered above.

deepcosmos2) would you introduce me the general rule with conditions to make 'the non restrictive modifier' or 'absolute construction' especially with "some of, most of pronoun"?

I don't know what you're asking, but ask again in a different way if the answers above have not already covered this topic.

Note, however, that in general it is easier to show how to analyze a given sentence than to provide fool-proof ways of creating sentences from scratch according to given specifications.

CJ

Comments  

Regarding my above inquiry, I have seen the notice message that "Billj" answered mine as per following screen shot but I'm not able to find it nowhere.

Is there anyone who can help me to find it?




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deepcosmosI have seen the notice message that "Billj" answered mine as per following screen shot but I'm not able to find it anywhere

He may have intended to edit his answer but then got called away to attend to other business and so deleted it rather than leave it incomplete. He may come back later to answer when he has more time.

This is pure speculation. There may be another explanation.

CJ

 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
CalifJimI don't know what you're asking, but ask again in a different way if the answers above have not already covered this topic.Note, however, that in general it is easier to show how to analyze a given sentence than to provide fool-proof ways of creating sentences from scratch according to given specifications.

Hello, CJ, I couln't agree more.


The reason why I asked the general rule for 'the non restrictive modifier' or 'absolute construction' was that I couldn't have expected you to give me such a wonderfully clear explanation when issuing my thread.


CJ, thanking you million times as per usual,

Site Hint: Check out our list of pronunciation videos.

You are very welcome.

CJ