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We use -ing form with the verb 'spend' as in
He spent 29% of his time working.

Is working a gerund or a present participle?
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Hello Tommyyensr,

"working" here as a gerund, because it is an object of the verb "spend".

H2K.
it's obvious that we know as followingEmotion: stick out tongue

gerund = form of a verb which acts as a noun

and

present participle = verb in the present tense which functions as a noun or adjective

so, now i am understanding that "working" in the sentence is both gerund and present participle.

isn't it?

best regards

Thank you very much
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In this sentence it is used as a gerund, not a present participle.

"Working" is acting as a noun

e.g. Working is good for you. (A job is good for you)

Smoking is bad for you (a cigarette is bad for you)

Children like playing (children like a game)
at last, i understand the difference between "Gerund" and "Present Participle".

Working is good for you.
working = gerund

Tom working in the library is my friend.
working = present participle

right?

Thank you very much
Hi, Abbie,
In this sentence it is used as a gerund, not a present participle.


Can we assume that by "this" sentence, you mean the one below?
He spent 29% of his time working.


If so, could you expand on that? What noun could substitute for "working", for example?

I can imagine an adjective: "He spent 29% of his time joyous at the thought of having won the lottery".

But not so easily a noun: "?He spent 29% of his time a leader and 71% a follower".

In any case, the original sentence strikes me as having more family resemblance to "spent his time joyous ..." than to "spent his time a leader ...".

I'm inclined to think that "gerund" (a noun-like entity) and "participle" (an adjective-like entity) both miss the point completely.

"How did he spend his time?" "He spent his time [quietly, wisely, working]".
What do we call an "ing" word that acts neither as a noun nor as an adjective, but as an adverb?

CJ
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Help! Backed into a corner by JTT!

"What do we call an "ing" word that acts neither as a noun nor as an adjective, but as an adverb? " An abbie-ism? A mistake? Object complement? [:^)]
(1) He spent 29 % of his time working.
(2) He spent 29 % of his time in/on working.

I too feel we have to take 'working' in (1) as a subject-modifying adjective [i.e., present participle], though (1) may be a degenerated form of (2) where 'working' is clearly a gerund.

paco
There you go, Paco!
Your second interpretation is where I thought this discussion was going to go - although I thought the preferred preposition might have been "by". "at" also works.

He fixed the faucet by [using a wrench / calling a plumber / ...]
He spent his time ?by/?at [working / playing / ...]

"in" is definitely better, though, with the likes of:

He had a problem [in / *by / *at] fixing the faucet.

So, Abbie, maybe this oddity is closer to a gerund than to a participle after all! Emotion: smile

The problem is the missing preposition. That still bothers me.

Does any -ing form after a preposition absolutely have to be called a gerund?
What circumstances have to be present in order to posit the presence of a deleted or null preposition in these constructions?

Hmmmm.

CJ
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