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What can be a subject or an object of a sentence? Is that only noun can be a subject or an object? I don’t think so. How about word group and clause? Can they become a subject or an object of a sentence?

e.g. Shopping for clothing and other items (subject) satisfies personal needs. The subject here is a word group I guess

To design a mall (subject) is to create an artificial environment. The subject is also a word group? BTW, the object here is to create or to create an artificial environment?

Whether the program would succeed (subject) depended on door-to-door advertising. The subject is a clause.

It was surprising that Mary was nominated. Here the object is a clause.

Hope you can correct me. THanks.
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Nouns, pronouns, and groups of words that form noun phrases can all be subjects and objects in sentences.

Shopping, for example, is a gerund - a verb form that works like a noun. Shopping for clothing or other items is just an exanded noun phrase.
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MIA6It was surprising that Mary was nominated. Here the object is a clause.

I would not call the underlined portion the object; rather, "it" anticipates the postponed (extraposed) clausal subject.

Cf.

"That Mary was nominated was surprising."

MrP