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Can you kindly tell me how they are different ?

1. He plays basketball.

He is playing basketball.

(Is that merely the second sentence has the verb tense that is part of the time frame that is being played out by the verb tense in the first sentence?)

2. It cries out in the night.

It cries out at night.

3. I think you convered this in the past but I am not sure.

Don't talk loud.

Don't talk aloud.
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Hi,

1. He plays basketball. Refers to habit/routine, eg 'everyday'.

He is playing basketball. Refers to present duration, eg 'right now'.

2. It cries out in the night. During the night. Sounds a bit literary.

It cries out at night. Treats night as a 'point during the 24 hours', ie the day consists of 'night/not night'.

3. I think you covered this in the past but I am not sure.

Don't talk loud. It's OK to talk quietly.

Don't talk aloud. I don't want to hear you talking. Be silent, or maybe whisper very, very quietly.

Best wishes, Clive
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1. He plays basketball. This sentence expresses an attribute -- he is a basketball-playing person. It is in the attributive aspect.

He is playing basketball. This sentence expresses an ongoing activity. It is said to be in the progressive aspect.

(Is that merely the second sentence has the verb tense that is part of the time frame that is being played out by the verb tense in the first sentence?)

2. It cries out in the night. As with the first sentence above, this is in the attributive aspect. Crying out in the night is what it regularly does.

It cries out at night. I don't see any difference between in the night and at night.

3. I think you covered this in the past but I am not sure.

Don't talk loud. This means "Don't talk loudly." (The adverb loudly is a bit more formal than the adverb loud.)

Don't talk aloud. This means "Don't talk audibly."
Thank you.

So is it your educated opinion that when whenver we see a sentence is in the present tense, then we are seeing a sentence that is showing the attribute aspect and the whenver we see a sentence in the present progressive tense, then we are seeing a sentence exhibiting the progressive aspect?

Also, with all due respect, I have a little reservation about the word "audibly" in the sentence "Don't talk audibly." I think that sentence conveys the notion that says "Don't make any audible sound."
No, aspect and tense are independent. There is a very good discussion at http://www.uwm.edu/~noonan/403/CEG.V1.pdf . That pdf file is all of Volume 1 of Michael Noonan's A Course in English Grammar. Chapter Three covers the verb complex, including tense and aspect.

I too had second thoughts about using audibly. If one does not talk audibly, then no one can hear him or her. The American Heritage Dictionary does have this definition of aloud:
2. Louder than a whisper; audibly.
Don't talk louder than a whisper would have been better. Emotion: big smile
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