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What’s the analog of this equation in angular terms? That’s easy; you just substitute angle theta for the distance, so the angular velocity is theta/t. That means that angular velocity is the angle (in radians) that an object sweeps through per second. The symbol for angular velocity is omega, so you can write the equation for angular velocity this way:

What is the grammatical form and function of through in "an object sweeps through..."?

I couldn't decide whether "through" is an adverb or a preposition?

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It's a preposition. The phrase "that an object sweeps through" is the same as "through which an object sweeps".

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JigneshbharatiI couldn't decide whether "through" is an adverb or a preposition?

It's a preposition, but it's displaced from its object (the angle) because of the relative clause.

the angle ... through instead of through the angle

Similarly,

the cave that the treasure is hidden in (in the cave)
the shelf that I put the book on (on the shelf)
the road that the chicken walked across (across the road)

CJ