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Often the need to clean up the atmosphere ---- through major environmental disasters of which the London smog of 1952 still ---- a prime example.

A) was realised / remains
B) has been realised / remained
C) would be realised / would remain
D) was being realised / will remain
E) had been realised / has remained
After doing my best to understand, I thought it wass time to open this UDS question to the NATIVES. Which one is the right answer? If it is A, what "often" stands for? To show habit in the past, like many other adverbs of frequency? Don't we need a comma just before the prep of "OF"? Could you restate or rephrase this sentence, or divide into two or more sentences so as to make it clearer for a poor non-native?

Thank you very much in advance.
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The final clause would only suggest that the smog remains today (as opposed to being an example that remains today) if it said still remains as a prime example.

A is the only workable option for me as 'remains' is the only one that naturally follows 'still'. Then looking back at the start 'was realised' makes sense here.
Comments  
This is my two cents before the teachers' input

1、I vote for A

2、often: frequently.

3、They wouldn’t use a comma before “of which”, because they don’t want to make it readable. We could use a comma if we want our words more readable.

4、Paraphrasing:

The need to clean up the atmosphere was often realized through major environmental disaster, And London smog of 1952 has been a prime example of those major environmental disaster up to now.

“Remain” means “continue in a position/situation”, "remains" could express the similar meaning with "has been"

I’m wondering why not disasterS
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Mamger
Often the need to clean up the atmosphere ---- through major environmental disasters of which the London smog of 1952 still ---- a prime example.

A) was realised / remains
B) has been realised / remained
C) would be realised / would remain
D) was being realised / will remain
E) had been realised / has remained
After doing my best to understand, I thought it wass time to open this UDS question to the NATIVES. Which one is the right answer? If it is A, what "often" stands for? To show habit in the past, like many other adverbs of frequency? Don't we need a comma just before the prep of "OF"? Could you restate or rephrase this sentence, or divide into two or more sentences so as to make it clearer for a poor non-native?

Thank you very much in advance.



This is how I approach this sentence.

“Often” suggests that it’s something general as in “he often takes the bus to work”. So the statement should be in my opinion: Often the need to clean up the atmosphere -is realized --- through major environmental disasters of which the smog of 1952 still ….has remained ---- a prime example.

If my logic prevails, then A,B,C,D,and E all have flaws with logic and thought process. The clause part implies that the smog problem which had started in 1952 still lingers on today. Thus, the present perfect tense should prevail. That how I see it.Emotion: smile
 nona the brit's reply was promoted to an answer.
Nona The BritThe final clause would only suggest that the smog remains today (as opposed to being an example that remains today) if it said still remains as a prime example.

A is the only workable option for me as 'remains' is the only one that naturally follows 'still'. Then looking back at the start 'was realised' makes sense here.

If the smog inference was made from way back then and the smog problem still exists, it suggested it's on-going. If this agreement is not met, then perhpas "often" should be taken off the context. Just my take...
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