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By philosophy is usually meant our most general account of the nature of the world and of mankind's place and destiny in it-our world outlook.

That being understood, it is evident that everybody has some kind of philosophy, even though he has never learned to discuss it. Everybody is influenced by philosophical views, even though he has not thought them out for himself and cannot formulate them.

[Maurice Cornforth, Materialism and Dialectical method]


I have some questions to ask

1. Is the word by mean "because"?

2. What does "That being understood" mean? Does it mean that: "It could be understood like this"?

3. Does "thought out" in the context mean "consider" or "invent"?

4. "For himself" versus "by himself". What is the difference?


Thanks!

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XVI

By philosophy is usually meant our most general account of the nature of the world and of mankind's place and destiny in it-our world outlook.

When we say "philosophy" it usually means ...

That being understood, it is evident that everybody has some kind of philosophy, even though he has never learned to discuss it.

Now that you understand that, ...

Everybody is influenced by philosophical views, even though he has not thought them out for himself and cannot formulate them.

he has not taken time to think about his philosophical views in enough depth to understand them very well

[Maurice Cornforth, Materialism and Dialectical method]

CJ

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Thank you very much!

Could I replace "That being understood" with "With that understanding"?

Thanks

XVI

Could I replace "That being understood" with "With that understanding"?

Thanks

No. being understood is the passive, like This fact is understood by everyone, but understanding is the active, like Everyone understands this fact.

They are opposites.

CJ

Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.

One last question, you said that "That being understood" mean by "Now that you understand that". So is the second "that" in Now that you understand that a determiner or an introduction of a that-clause?

Thanks

XVINow that you understand [that (fact just presented above)], ...

determiner Emotion: wink

CJ