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I found the following sentences in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English:

1. By the end of the trial, Nicolas moved towards acceptance of his fate.

2. They need to raise awareness of the product in markets such as France and the US, where it is less well known.

3. The First Amendment guarantees freedom of expression.

My question:

1. Is it optional to put "the" before "acceptance of his fate"?

2. Is it also optional to put "the" before "awareness of the product"?

3. Can I take that "freedom of expression" is an established phrase considered as an abstract noun and that is the reason "the" is not necessary before "freedom of expression"?

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Snappy

1. By the end of the trial, Nicolas moved towards (the) acceptance of his fate.

2. They need to raise [the] awareness of the product in markets such as France and the US, where it is less well known.

3. The First Amendment guarantees (the) freedom of expression.

"the" is optional in 1 and 3. It is forbidden in 2.

'raise awareness' should be considered a fixed phrase.

I don't know of any particular reason why "the" is optional in the other two sentences.

CJ

Comments  
Snappy1. Is it optional to put "the" before "acceptance of his fate"?

No. "The" would be wrong. You want the mass noun, but there is a different problem. "By" sets a point in time, and "moved towards" covers a span of time. It should be "near the end" or "had moved".

Snappy2. Is it also optional to put "the" before "awareness of the product"?

No. "The" would be wrong. "The awareness" would mysteriously imply that there is an awareness out there. You could qualify "awareness" specifically, "people's awareness" or "consumer awareness", but it is unnecessary to do so.

Snappy3. Can I take that "freedom of expression" is an established phrase considered as an abstract noun and that is the reason "the" is not necessary before "freedom of expression"?

That works, but it would be just the same if the First Amendment simply guaranteed freedom.

 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.