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I've learnt that "alone" as in "he is answerable to Parliament alone" is an adverb that modify the NP, "parliament." Are they the same structure? "The boys each said they would go." / "The boys all said they would go." Further, apart from those adverbs, Is there any adverb that modify the NP?

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anonymousI've learnt that "alone" as in "he is answerable to Parliament alone" is an adverb that modify the NP, "parliament."

Yes, the focusing adverb "alone" modifies the NP "Parliament".

anonymous Are they the same structure? "The boys each said they would go." / "The boys all said they would go."

"Each" and "all" are not adverbs but determinatives functioning as quantificational adjuncts in clause structure, not NP structure.

anonymousFurther, apart from those adverbs, Is there any adverb that modify the NP?

Some of the focusing adverbs, and a few others modify NPs:

He loves only his work.

Even Kim resigned

I'm virtually his only friend.

I bought almost the last copy.


Each of the above has an adverb modifying an NP. But note that generally adverbs don't modify nouns or nominal (as opposed to NPs). But there are one or two constructions we find where an adverb modifying a noun:

Industrial action resulted in the withdrawal indefinitely of the ferry service.

A shortage of timber internationally led to a steep increase in prices.

Comments  
anonymousI've learnt that "alone" as in "he is answerable to Parliament alone" is an adverb that modify the NP

In my opinion adverbs should not be capable of modifying nouns. It destabilises the entire concept of "adverb". A different explanation is needed.

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 BillJ's reply was promoted to an answer.
BillJYes, the focusing adverb "alone" modifies the NP "Parliament".

However, "alone" does not change or give more information about the meaning of "Parliament". It does not tell us which Parliament is meant, or designate a type of Parliament, or the condition of Parliament, or have any other effect on "Parliament" that we would normally expect of a noun modifier. Instead, it tells us something about his answerability. The phrase "Parliament alone" is not semantically complete by itself. There has to be something else for "alone" to relate to.

That's because it's a focusing modifier that has "Parliament" as its focus. It forms part of the NP "Parliament alone", which is a constituent.

"Alone" is equivalent to "only", compare He is answerable to Parliament, and only Parliament (i.e. Parliament and nowhere else).

And it's mobile too: [Parliament alone] is responsible for debating the proposals, where "Parliament alone" is clearly a constituent since it serves as the subject.

Compare also [Only Parliament] can pass the Bill, where the restrictive focusing modifier "only" is part of the NP functioning as subject. The NP "only Parliament" is just as much a constituent as "Parliament alone" is.

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