What's the difference between a phrase and a sentence (I suppose there must be one)
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I was taught a 'sentence' is a group of words to form a statement and a 'phrase' is a group of words that are part of a sentence. For instance,

'I like this forum for many reasons, first of all, it helps me with my English learning but , not only that, I enjoy a lot the discussion topics and the riddles'

'first of all' and 'not only that' are phrases.

'I like this forum for many reasons', 'it helps me with my English learning' and 'I enjoy a lot discussion topics and the riddles' are sentences.
What you call "sentences," I would call "clauses." I would put the three of them together in a single sentence.
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Ah ok , sure, phrase-clause-sentence, aha. Thank you.
As far as I know, 2 or a bunch of words with no subject and verb in it.

Eg. On second thought, I decided to join EnglishForward as a memberEmotion: smile. " On second though " is supposed to be a phrase, the later is the main sentence.
sooo.... now I am a little confused. What is the difference between a sentence and a clause??

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A sentence has subject and predicate, and the sentence gives a complete meaning.

On the other hand, a phrase doesn't have subject and predicate, and doesn't give any meaning standing by itself.

(E-x) To the door, Going to store, To be sick.
A sentence begins with a capital and ends with a full-stop - or a question mark in the case of an interrogative sentence, an exclamation mark for an exclamative sentence -.

There can be different clauses in a sentence.
A sentence may take the form of a single clause or be formed from several clauses. The typical clause has a noun phrase for a subject and a verb phrase for a predicate. The verb phrase may have another noun phrase or two embedded within it which serves as direct object or indirect object. Noun phrases and verb phrases can also have prepositional phrases embedded within them. Adjective phrases and adverb phrases may also occur within clauses.
Clauses may be finite or non-finite. The main clause of a sentence (sometimes the only clause) has the finite form (inflected form) of a verb, so it is a finite clause. If the verb portion of a clause is not inflected for person, tense, or number, but is instead an infinitive, participle, or gerund, then it is a non-finite clause.

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