According to Gass & Selinker (1994), Krashen has stated three conditions to be met to access the learned system. The three conditions for Monitor are:
1. Time. Second language learners need enough time to think consciously about the rules they learned.
2. Focus on form. Besides time, the learner needs to focus not only on what to say but also how to say it, the form.
3. Know the rule. Second language learners should know the rules of the language in order to use them.
As McLaughlin (1987) reported, Krashen has divided second language learners when using the Monitor process into three types due to their individual differences. These three types are:
1. Monitor over-users. This is when performers Monitor all the time. As a result, they may speak with hesitation and usually correct themselves in the middle of the utterance. Sometimes, this happens when second language learners are taught only grammar.
2. Monitor under-users. This is when performers depend only on the acquired system. They do so either because they have not learned or because they don’t want to use their learned system. They don’t self-correct even if the three conditions are met. They just use their ‘feel’ for correctness.
3. The optimal Monitor user. This is when the performer uses the Monitor process when it is suitable and will not affect communication. When the three conditions are met, the optimal performer will Monitor to make his output more accurate.
Looking for ESL work?: Try our EFL / TOEFL / ESL Jobs Section!
Thank you so much for the great information in this article.
It really helped me in my presentation and thy were really simplified and easy to remember and explain.
People are waiting to help.
Related forum topics: