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“Father, Father !” The people of Tonj, South Sudan, were all crying.

Some children were walking with pictures of a man.

They had lost a very special person.

The man in the picture was Father Lee Taeseok, a Korean priest and doctor.

In 2001, Father Lee Taeseok visited Tonj to help the sick and poor people there.

Life in Tonj was very difficult, so he soon returned to Korea.

However, he could not forget the people there.

So he flew to Tonj again later that year.

From then on, Father John Lee, as the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

Q. what is the part of speech of 'as' ? Is it a conjunction?

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Comments  (Page 2) 
BillJNo, it's not a conjunction. Modern grammar takes this "as" to be a preposition with the underlined clause as its complement.

Preposition? I can't understand... a preposition cannot take a subject and a verb

You mean this?

= as(preposition) + the villagers(subject) + called(verb) + him(object)

I thought that 'as' functions like a supplementary relative pronoun because.....

= as the villagers(subject) + called(verb) + him(object) + ___________(object complement)

It's difficult...

HoonyPreposition? I can't understand... a preposition cannot take a subject and a verb.

Yes it can, when the subject and verb form a clause, as in your example. Modern grammar recognises that prepositions can take quite a few kinds of complement, not just NPs, but PPs, AdvPs and clauses as well.

HoonyYou mean this?= as(preposition) + the villagers(subject) + called(verb) + him(object)

I don't follow you. The three constituents "the villagers" + "called" + "him" form a clause serving as complement of the preposition "as". The PP "as the villagers called him" is then an adjunct of comparison. It's important to note that "as" has a comparative meaning here.

HoonyI thought that 'as' functions like a supplementary relative pronoun because.....= as the villagers(subject) + called(verb) + him(object) + ___________(object complement).It's difficult...

No, that's not the case. "As" is not a relative pronoun, and hence it cannot introduce a relative clause. Nevertheless, the two constructions are more or less semantically equivalent, as well as having a significant resemblance syntactically.

In the equivalent relative clause, which the villagers called him ___ , "which" serves as object complement represented by gap '___'. In the comparative clause, the missing complement is also represented by gap, but it is not anaphoric to "as" in the same way that gap is anaphoric to "which" in the relative clause.

Note that comparative clauses are obligatorily reduced in certain ways relative to the structure of main clauses. As we've said, the object complement of "called" is ellipted in your example.

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According to your opinion, (1) can indicate (2) ??

(1)From then on, Father John Lee, as the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

(2)From then on, Father John Lee, which the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

Thanks Billj


But still, you have explained a lot, but there is a limitation for me to understand your explanation because of language(English)

BillJNote that comparative clauses are obligatorily reduced in certain ways relative to the structure of main clauses.

I don't understand this part..

BillJAs we've said, the object complement of "called" is ellipted in your example.

Can we say that the ellipted object complement is 'Father John Lee' ?

Hoony

According to your opinion, (1) can indicate (2) ??

(1)From then on, Father John Lee, as the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

(2)From then on, Father John Lee, which the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

Yes, there is a strong resemblance between the two, and they have roughly the same meaning. But the grammar is different: "as" is a preposition and "which" is a pronoun. Importantly, "as" is comparative, not relative. The comparative clause that complements "as" is one of equality.

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Hoony

According to your opinion, (1) can indicate (2) ??

(1)From then on, Father John Lee, as the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

(2)From then on, Father John Lee, which the villagers called him, worked tirelessly as a doctor, teacher, and musician.

Approximately, yes. Both "as" and "which" are "relative" words that supply the answer to "Called him what?" by referring back to "Father John Lee". In practice (2) feels less natural to me, however. Also, in my view "as" provides the answer in a somewhat "adverbial" way, unlike "which".

HoonyBillJNote that comparative clauses are obligatorily reduced in certain ways relative to the structure of main clauses.I don't understand this part..

In the comparative clause, the object complement Father John Lee is obligatorily omitted since it would make no sense to say *From then on, Father John Lee, as the villagers called him Father John Lee. Compare:

The villagers called him. [reduced comparative clause]

The villagers called him Father John Lee. [main clause]

HoonyBillJAs we've said, the object complement of "called" is ellipted in your example. Can we say that the ellipted object complement is 'Father John Lee' ?

Yes, see my comment above.


I think you're going off-topic. You originally asked what POS "as" belongs to, and you have the answer that it's a preposition. Here's a link to an elightened dictionary, which confirms that: https://simple.wiktionary.org/wiki/as