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What is the difference between the two below?
(1) That's why they give her the attention.
(2) That's why they give her the attention they do.
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Comments  
The first sentence is a direct sentence:
(... it completes the meaning of the verb by naming the receiver of the action.)

That's why they give her the attention.

and an indirect sentence:
(... it tells to whom or for whom something is done.)

That's why they give her the attention.

As for statement #2 ..."they do." emphases the statement and modifying the subject "that" .
"They do" is an intransitive verb which does not require an object to receive its action.

Other than that, "That's why they give her the attention they do" is just a common style of natural spoken English for native speakers. Under normal circumstances, a grammar tutor would not accept that statement above as grammatically correct.
Taka (1) That's why they give her the attention.
(2) That's why they give her the attention they do.
Perhaps the difference might be clear if you considered what questions these statements might answer.
Why do you love me?
Why do you love me as much as you do?

(1) I've had my hand raised for fifteen minutes and the teacher doesn't call on me. Same thing in Algebra class. They always call on Brenda. Why do they pick her instead of me?

(2) I know it's none of my business. I get all the help I need. But why is the teacher always hanging aroung Susan's desk? Is her old man rich or something? Why do they pamper her? Why do they give her so much attention?

- A.

Edit. <<That's why they give her [the] attention.>> I think generally speaking, this sentence with the the, means "her, and not me." That is, with the definite article, it means "She gets the attention which is given,.and I don't."

If we mean, "That's why she gets attention instead of being ignored," we'd omit the the.
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Hi,
What is the difference between the two below?

I'd like to add just a couple of comments on how I see this.

(1) That's why they give her the attention.
Q - What attention?
A - The attention that has already been specified, ie mentioned earlier in the context.

(2) That's why they give her the attention they do.
Q - What attention?
A - The attention (that) they do (give her).

In other words, in case #2 the attention does not have to be specified earlier in the context.

Best wishes, Clive
Good point, Clive.
CliveHi,

(2) That's why they give her the attention they do.
Q - What attention?
A - The attention (that) they do (give her).

Initially I thought so as well. But then isn't 'They give her the attention they give (i.e.do)' kind of redundant?
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Taka isn't 'They give her the attention they give (i.e.do)' kind of redundant?
No more so than "I just gave you back the five dollars you just gave me."

The so-called "redundancy" provides essential new information, so it's not a redundancy. (Which five dollars?)

- A.
As for your example:
I(A) just gave you back the five dollars you(B) just gave me.
A≠B
But the sentence in question:
They(A) give her the attention they(A) give.
The same A
What is the reason for the repetition of the same 'they give' here?
AvangiThe so-called "redundancy" provides essential new information, so it's not a redundancy. (Which five dollars?)

Redundancy provides new information?? Are you sure?
For the purpose of her action/situation/event, they give her the attention.
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