Count and non-count nouns. Simply put, count nouns are those that can be enumerated or counted. Examples include desk, tree, and chair. On the other hand, non-count nouns are mass nouns, which do not normally occur in the plural form. They often refer to abstractions and carry a collective meaning. Examples include love, honesty, luggage,and water. In a broad sense, the terms count and non-count nouns are conceptualized in the same way in English and Chinese. However, differences exist in how individual lexical items are categorized. For example, some items classified as count nouns in Chinese are classified as non-count nouns in English. Specific examples include furniture, baggage, luggage, mail, bread, and chalk. Because of this discrepancy, Chinese students may tend to make the following types of errors.
*There are a lot of good furnitures in his house.
*I got two mails today.
*I had two breads today.
*There are three chalks on the desk.

A Chinese teacher of English says that we can never say one paper, two breads, or three chalks, because paper, bread and chalk are all uncountable nouns. Can't "chalk" be used as a countable noun? Why did I hear people say "a box of colored chalks"?

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Yes, it should be a piece/sheet of paper (if you're talking of the support of something written), two loaves of bread. Yet a chalk can also mean the stick you write with (and not the rock), and in that case it's countable.
chalk2 [tʃoːk] noun

(a piece of) a chalk-like substance used for writing (especially on blackboards)
Example: a box of chalks

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After having stolen several chalks from the classroom blackboard, the pupils MP e DA pretend the use of narcotic substances through credit cards and rolled ...

Cambridge shows it as both C and U.

The C (Countable) use is rare, but it exists.

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

chalk noun, verb
1 [U] a type of soft white stone: the chalk cliffs of southern England
2 [U, C] a substance similar to chalk made into white or coloured sticks for writing or drawing: a piece / stick of chalk drawing diagrams with chalk on the blackboard a box of coloured chalks

A Chinese teacher of English says that we can never say one paper, two breads, or three chalks, because paper, bread and chalk are all uncountable nouns.
Where I come from we don't say three chalks. We say three pieces of chalk.
This is true regardless of what any dictionary may say.

Perhaps your Chinese English teacher also learned English from someone who never uses "three chalks". He or she is teaching you this same variety of English.

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Thank you.

Assuming 'chalk' is almost always used as uncountable, how would you write the phrase 'a box of colored chalks' and the idea behind it. For that matter, how would you write the phrase 'a room full of colored furnitures??' or 'a room full of colored merchandises??' and the same idea behind those phrases.

I think furniture and merchandise are uncountable nouns.

According to Cambridge, "furniture" & "merchandise" are always uncountable, whereas "chalk" can be both.

It exists in the plural only in this set expression, 'box of coloured chalks'.

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