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Don't you think it's time you took out the rubbish?
I saw the above in one of the videos about rhetorical questions.
Why did they the past tense "took out" in the given context?

how is this an example of a rhetorical question?

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JigneshbharatiWhy did they the past tense "took out" in the given context?

It's not a true temporal past tense but an "unreal" past tense, used to talk about a hypothetical event or situation. It is triggered by the "it's time (that)" phrase.

Jigneshbharatihow is this an example of a rhetorical question?

Because an answer is not normally wanted. Instead, it is a way of expressing the speaker's view that the other person should take out the rubbish.

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JigneshbharatiWhy did they the past tense "took out" in the given context?

The past is advised after "It's time" or "It's high time"; however, in actual fact, both the past and the present are used, both in AmE and in BrE, e.g.,

It's time you step out of the box you've been living in. (The Economist, London)

CJ