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A teacher of English in my country says, "Adjectives in -ing describe the doer of the action , but adjectives ending in -ed describe the thing or the person that received the action. "

In fact, I don't think he is right. Am I right?

He also says, "Use "best" and not "the best" at the end of a sentence. For example, I liked this film best. (not the best)"

I think that we can use "the best" at the end of a sentence. I sometimes see "the best" at the end of a sentence. Am I right?

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essam gaweesh"Adjectives in -ing describe the doer of the action , but adjectives ending in -ed describe the thing or the person that received the action. "

This is correct.
"doer of the action" = subject; "receiver of the action" = object.

An -ing form typically modifies a noun which can be the subject of an active sentence.

the laughing hyena <- The hyena is laughing.  The hyena laughs.
my beating heart < - My heart is beating. My heart beats.
the flowing water < - The water is flowing. The water flows.
a surprising fact < - This fact is surprising. This fact surprises people.
that boring film < - That film is boring. That film bores people.
an amusing trick < That trick is amusing. That trick amuses people.

An -en (-ed) form typically modifies a noun which can be the object of an active sentence.

a bored student < - Something is boring the student.
the divided country < - Something divides the country.
a found object < - Somebody found the object.
the frightened child < - Something frightened the child.
a half-eaten orange < - Somebody ate half of the orange.
the long-sought solution < - People sought the solution for a long time.

CJ

Comments  

When participles ("-ing" = present participle and "-ed" = past participle) function as adjectives, the noun that they modify could be referring to either a "doer" or a "done to" - as shown below, where the noun "runner" sometimes refers to the "doer" and sometimes to the "done to".

"The tiring runner won the race."

"The tiring runner was passed."

"Everyone passed the tiring runner."

"The tired runner won."

"The tired runner was passed."

"Everyone passed the tired runner."

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I like him best.

I like him the best.

Native English speakers do say both - without any difference in meaning.

You might like to take note that if you are comparing just two items, you should not use the superlative form. "Best" implies that you are comparing more than two things.

"ET" and "Star Wars" are both good films but I think "ET" is better."

"Of all the films I have ever seen, I like "ET" the best."

What did the doer do here? What happened to the done to?

In the "runner" sentences the runner is either winning or getting passed.

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May you refer me to a reference where I can find this valuable piece of information?

There are many on line references to participles functioning as adjectives but, sorry, Not as far as I know about doing and done to.

 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
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