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Hi

I would like to ask a few questions in this post.

Is there any (special) term for those verbs which have two past participles with different meanings?

Cost - Cost - [Cost/Costed]

Hang - Hanged - [Hung/Hanged]

Speed - Speed - [Sped/Speeded]

Shine - Shone - [Shone/ Shined]

Abide - Abided - [Abided/Abode]

How wrong would it be to use one past participle where the other is required? For example:

The medicine has sped her recovery. [speeded]

The police said he had sped on the motorway. [speeded]

Has the project been cost? [costed]

I have shone my shoes. [shined]

He has abided with her most of his life. [abode]

Lastly, could you please tell me some more verbs like this?

Thanks,

Tom
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Comments  
In my experience there are two types:

1. The identical infinitive forms are actually two different verbs.
2. There's only one verb, but the alternate P.P. is optional, or regional.

Check your dictionary. If you use the wrong one in type 1., it's incorrect.
If you use the alternate one in type 2., there's no problem.

They hung the picture in the wrong place. ("Hanged" would be incorrect.)

They hanged the horsethief at dawn. ("Hung" would be incorrect.)

Your dictionary will tell you right up front what the correct P.P is, and if there's an acceptable alternate.

In the case of "to hang a thief" and "to hang a picture," there will be two separate entries.
Mr. Tom

The medicine has sped her recovery. [speeded]

The police said he had sped on the motorway. [speeded]

Has the project been cost? [costed]

I have shone my shoes. [shined]

He has abided with her most of his life. [abode]

Thanks, Avangi. Can I request some light on these sentences? How many of them would sound plain wrong if we tampered with the past participle?

Tom

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Mr. TomThe medicine has sped her recovery. [speeded]

The police said he had sped on the motorway. [speeded]
As far as I know, sped and speeded are in free variation. My dictionary usually points out usage problems, and it says nothing special about these past participles. Either form would do in either sentence. Personally, I think I would use sped her recovery and speeded on the highway. But I'm not sure. I might say sped on the highway!
Mr. TomHas the project been cost? [costed]cost is not correct.

You can say that an article for sale has cost a certain amount. (Not has costed.)

If you cost a project, you determine its costs (and you are probably an accountant). At the end of the process, the project has been costed. You have costed it. (Not have cost it.) [This usage is almost entirely restricted to accounting procedures used to help run a business, so 99.9% of the time has cost is what you'll need.]
Mr. TomI have shone my shoes. [shined]
shone is not correct.

You can say that a source of light has shone or has shined.

If you shine a shoe, it will be shined. You have shined it. (Not shone it.) [Don't use shone transitively.]
Personally, I don't generate the form shone at all, though I recognize it when I hear it or read it.
Mr. TomHe has abided with her most of his life. [abode]
I have no mastery over the verb abide, so I can't comment on it. I have only read it in very old texts, and no one that I come in contact with ever uses this verb. It is highly unlikely that you will ever need to know the usage of abide. For all practical purposes, it is a dead word.

CJ

CalifJimIt is highly unlikely that you will ever need to know the usage of abide. For all practical purposes, it is a dead word.
I still hear "I can't abide a liar/thief/etc." But I understand what you're saying. I sometimes keep company with octogenarians, and we too are dead for all practical purposes.
Re "cost," I completely agree with Jim on this, and am a bit chagrined that my previous advice breaks down.
My 1981 Am Htg Dictionary doesn't include "costed" as a P.P / 3rd sing., although the transitive definiition is clearly the one we're talking about: "to estimate or determine the cost of." [Yesterday Jack costed this equipment at $2 million.] (The other common usage is intransitive. Yesterday this thing cost twice as much!)
(Note: I use the 3rd singular rather than the P.P because it's less confusing.) [:^)]

But obviously my source treats these as two different uses of the same verb. Perhaps a newer dictionary will take a different tack.

Ah yes! I'm exhonerated! MW Unabridged lists two separate verbs, tr. costed; and intr. cost.
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One more apology - I should have said "simple past tense" instead of "3rd singular" when referring to the form which is commonly identical to the past participle. I used the simple past in examples because it seems less confusing.
AvangiI still hear "I can't abide a liar/thief/etc."
Well, OK. You've got me there. But do you hear I have never abode a liar or never abided a liar? Or (more likely) neither because no one says it?

Emotion: smile
CJ
Is that checkmate?Emotion: star

I may have to exhume someone.
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