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The first question.

I had a dispute with my English teacher. She told me that "am I not" is old fashioned and not used anymore and that "aren't I" is better to be used, but I don't agree with her at all. In my opinion, "am I not"(by example, in "I am your teacher, am I not?") is more grammatically correct than the form "aren't I" which makes no sense for me, at all.
The pronom "am" is used for the first person, not "are".

But anyway, what is your opinion about: "am I not", "aren't I", "ain't I" and "amn't I"?

The second question.

Should I use "shall/I shan't" or "will/won't" for the first person? Once again, in my opinion, the first one is more grammatically corect.
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Comments  
"aren't I" is apparently a corruption, via "an't I", of "amn't I", so it is etymologically unrelated to "are" (see http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-amn1.htm ). "aren't I" is widespread in conversation. In certain conversational contexts, such as tag questions (your example), "am I not" may sound overly formal, though it might still be heard occasionally. In other contexts "am I not" is common enough conversationally, e.g. "Why am I not allowed in there?". "aren't I" is not appropriate for formal writing, where "am I not" should be used, even for a tag question.

"ain't I" is even lower register than "aren't I".

"amn't I" is not used in standard modern English. It appears dialect or old-fashioned.
GPY "aren't I" is not appropriate for formal writing, where "am I not" should be used, even for a tag question.
If tag questions are acceptable in formal writing, then "aren't I" is as acceptable as any other, in my opinion. From the point of view of speaking, it is similar to "shan't I" and "can't I".
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fivejedjonIf tag questions are acceptable in formal writing, then "aren't I" is as acceptable as any other, in my opinion.
Really? Contractions in formal writing?
I said "If tag questions are acceptable". If they aren't, then there is no need to single out "aren't "I as unacceptable.
My view is that tag questions can be acceptable in formal writing, but not contractions like "aren't", "isn't", "can't" etc.
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GPYMy view is that tag questions can be acceptable in formal writing, but not contractions like "aren't", "isn't", "can't" etc.
Do you accept "aren't I?" and "Can't I?" as tag questions?
fivejedjonDo you accept "aren't I?" and "Can't I?" as tag questions?
Yes, of course, just not in formal writing.
I take it then then you do not accept such forms as "don't they?" and "Isn't he?" as tag questions in formal writing.
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